Category Archives: Answers to Questions

Why Did God Create Plant Life before the Sun?

Did God make a mistake by creating the plants before creating the sun? Everyone knows that the sun is needed for photosynthesis and heat. How could the Creator of the universe make such an error? Or,,, maybe He didn’t.

First of all, we must realize that Genesis chapter 1 was peer reviewed by Jesus and He accepted it as is; therefore, these Scriptures are correct; vegetation was created on day three (Genesis 1:11-13), and the sun was created on day four (Genesis 1:14-19). So, how does this make sense?

Point one: Photosynthesis and heat were not lacking on day 3 since light was created on day 1.

Genesis 1:3  And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

Genesis 1:5  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. (KJV)

Therefore, on day three there was no shortage of light or heat; it’s just that the source was not the sun; it was Jesus.

John 8:12  Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying,
I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. (KJV Jesus’ words in red)

Point two: At the end of the age, again, there will be light, but no sun. This is clearly stated in the Bible concerning the New Jerusalem:

Revelation 22:5 And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever. (KJV)

So, concerning the question, “Why did God create the plants before the sun?” the answer is: the sequence of creation of the sun and plant life doesn’t matter, but it highlights what is important, and that is that Jesus is the eternal source of light. So, what is the purpose of the sun? The Bible tells us it is to rule the day, and it is for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years (Genesis 1:14-16). The sun is an important element in the creation, but it is temporal. It supplies light for our brief sojourn here on earth, but one day the sun will cease from shining and Jesus will provide us with not only our physical light needs, but also our spiritual light needs. Jesus is the Light.

Recommended additional reading:

Genesis 1 and 2 Agreement or Contradiction?

Keywords: Jesus is the light; Jesus light; purpose of light; creation of light; creation sequence; creation sequencing; creation of light

Adam’s Complexion and Hair Color

Recent genetic discoveries coupled with Scriptures lead us to an intriguing possibility: Adam had red hair and a ruddy, or rosy, complexion. This notion is based on the following three pieces of evidence:

Adam_red(3)

(1) The name Adam means “red.”

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

(1) The name “Adam” means “red.” Look it up in any dictionary in any language and it means “red.” It comes from the Hebrew word “adam” which means “red” (Strong’s ref H119, H120). So, why would God call the first human “red?” I have known several people in my life who were called “red,” and they all had red hair and rosy complexions. We also know that the Bible proclaims that the life of the flesh is in the blood (Leviticus 17:11). Adam was formed out of the dust of the ground (also from the Hebrew H119 meaning redness), received the breath of life, and became a living soul (Genesis 2:7). The blood is arguably the center piece of creation: it gives us life and is the source of redemption (Hebrews 9:12). If Adam was, in fact, rosy, his complexion would display this center piece of the creation – the blood.

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere. The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently.(Ref 1) This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans. It is known that rosy complexioned people are very efficient at producing vitamin D from sunlight. It follows that the complexion of those who occupied the Earth before the flood were various shades of “rosy” in order to optimize vitamin D production. Then, the darker shades of skin pigment were activated after the flood to accommodate the new ecosystem. Had the darker skin pigments been activated before the flood, there could have been problems with inadequate production of vitamin D which typically result in rickets, bone deformities, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, asthma, cancer, and/or physiological problems. These ailments would not be consistent the Creators proclamation that the entire creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31) in the beginning.

(Technical note: Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in more protective ozone layer.)

In the beginning, God gave the command, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth.” We can be confident that He also gave man the genetics to provide the optimum skin and hair color to fulfill this charge. Then, after the flood, when Noah disembarked from the Ark, God again gave the decree to “fill the earth.” Again, with this decree, we can be assured that the Creator activated the proper DNA, optimizing skin pigment variation. If one looks at the present distribution of skin pigmentation on the globe, it is obvious the darker skin colors inhabit the equatorial regions and the lighter skin colors occupy the more northern and southern latitudes.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

We at Genesis and Genetics have concluded that Neanderthal is, in fact, antediluvian man (i.e. pre-flood man) (Ref 2). If we are correct, Neanderthal is the key to understanding Adam and our roots. Two Neanderthals have been sequenced for the Mc1R gene (this gene is known to determine rate and type of pigment production thereby determining hair color and skin color). The two Neanderthals had the Val92Met (Ref 3) and Arg307Gly (Ref 4) variations of this gene, both of which are known to produce red hair and rosy complexions. It is important to point out that one Neanderthal fossil was found in Italy and the other found in Spain, leading us to suppose they were not closely related. It is not known whether these variations in Neanderthals are dominant or recessive; it is also not know if the Neanderthals had one or two copies of these variations. Therefore, we must wait to know how much variation in hair color and complexion the Neanderthals had. Today, approximately one percent of the world population has red hair. So, if Neanderthals had the same mix, the probability of testing one Neanderthal and finding it had red hair would be 1 in 100. The probability of finding two unrelated ruddy Neanderthals would be 1 in 10,000. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider that a greater percentage of Neanderthals had red hair and rosy complexions than modern humans and they inherited them from Adam.

Neanderthals have been of keen interest among anthropologists for many years. There are many Neanderthal fossils and DNA sequences which have inspired scientists to make replicas based on the best evidence. These replicas of Neanderthal generally have red hair and rosy complexions.

Summary

Adam’s hair color and skin complexion have been a great mystery, but we are getting closer to the answer. Based on the Biblical meaning of the name “Adam”, the knowledge of the early atmosphere characteristics, and the consideration that Neanderthal is Adam’s close offspring, we at Genesis and Genetics are persuaded that Adam had red hair and a rosy complexion.

References:
(1) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/08/110808-ancient-insects-bugs-giants-oxygen-animals-science/
(2) http://www.genesisandgenetics.org/2013/11/08/177/

(3) Qiliang Ding, Ya Hu, Shuhua Xu, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li, Ruyue Zhang, Shi Yan, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin; Neanderthal Origin of the Haplotypes Carrying the Functional Variant Val92Met in theMC1R in Modern Humans. Mol Biol Evol 2014; 31 (8): 1994-2003. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu180

(4) A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying, Science 318, 1453 (2007);Carles Lalueza-Fox, et al., Pigmentation Among Neanderthals DOI: 10.1126/science.1147417

 

Suggested additional reading:

Where does Neanderthal fit in the Bible?

Neanderthal and his Biblical Identity? – Genesis and Genetics

Keywords: Adam complexion, Adam’s skin color, Adam hair color, Neanderthal hair color, Neanderthal complexion, antediluvian complexion, antediluvian hair color, Adam skin color

 

Unraveling Babel – Date and Population


 

ziggurat_mod_smallAt Genesis and Genetics, we are currently working on human migration. In order to understand the migration, it is helpful to know the population and date of the scattering of humanity from Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). The genealogy presented in Genesis chapters 10 and 11 has allowed us to extract both the date and population at this pivotal event in the history of man.

 

We have concluded that the date was 116 ± 15 years after the flood and the population was approximately 126.

We know, for sure, that the scattering occurred before the time of Abraham since Abraham came from the land of Ur (Genesis 11:31, Genesis 12:1), and not Babel. From Table 1, we see that Abraham was born 292 years after the flood; therefore, we have a boundary time frame.

Table 1. Ten Generations (of Shem) after the Flood

Individual

Individual

Born

Age at First Childs birth

(Chapter 10)

(Chapter 11)

Years after Flood

Arphaxad Arphaxad

2

35

Shelah Shelah

37

30

Eber Eber

67

34

Peleg Peleg

101

30

Reu

131

32

Serug

163

30

Nahor

193

29

Terah

222

70

Abraham

292

80

Isaac

392

60

Note: figure 1 was compiled from Genesis chapters 10 and 11.

Now we can further refine the date by using Genesis chapter 10 which is called the “table of nations.” Chapter 10 documents those who were the founders of nations and were presumably at Babel. We know that Noah had three sons, Ham, Shem, and Japheth; and through these three sons the entire world was populated. Genesis chapter 10 ends with the following verse:

Genesis 10:32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood. (ESV)

Therefore, we can deduce that those not listed in the table of nations were born after the scattering. From Figure 1, we see that Peleg was born 101 years after the flood. Peleg was mentioned in the table of nations, but his son Rue was not mentioned, nor was any of Shem’s ancestry after Peleg. From figure 1, we see that Peleg was 30 years old when he begot Rue; therefore, the scattering had to happen during the first 30 years of Peleg’s life. This allows us to conclude that the scattering happened during the year 116 ± 15 years after the flood.

Now concerning the population at the time of the scattering, it is simply the table of nations population (the 62 men called by name in Genesis chapter 10 times two = 124) plus Noah and his wife (126). This assumes that there were equal numbers of men and women.

In summary, we can be assured that the dispersion at Babel happened before the birth of Abraham 292 years after the flood; and using Genesis chapter 10 as the documentation of the individuals at the time of the scattering, we conclude it happened 116 plus or minus 15 years after the flood, and the population was very close to 126. These are the numbers we will use for our forth coming human migration studies.

Additional points of interest:

(1) Noah lived 350 years after the flood, but his activities after the incident in the cave (Genesis 9:20-27) were not documented.

(2) Noah and Abraham coexisted on the earth for 58 years. Abraham’s birth was 292 years after the flood and Noah lived 350 after the flood (350-292=58).

(3) Noah was not included in Genesis chapter 10 (table of nations), so we are not sure with which family he dwelt. We feel there is a strong chance that Noah migrated with Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, or Peleg and knew Abraham very well teaching Abraham the things that he, Noah, had learned directly from God.

(4) There is also a good probability that Noah greatly influenced Job and his friends. This is a subject of a future blog.


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The Sons of God and the Daughters of Man (and Giants)

In the book of Genesis, there is a very interesting scripture that states:


“… the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.” (Genesis 6:2)

This scripture is nestled in with other scriptures that talk about population increase, giants, great wickedness, and culminates with God confessing that He was broken hearted (Genesis 6:6); He was broken hearted to the point of being sorry He had made mankind (also Genesis 6:6). Here are the scriptures in context:

Genesis 6:1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
Genesis 6:2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
Genesis 6:3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Genesis 6:6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
Genesis 6:7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. (KJV)

What does all this mean? Let’s start by reviewing the early history of man: God created man (Adam) in God’s image and this creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31). Then, Adam sinned and became a mortal being, separated from God and destined to die. However, God was pleased with one of Adam’s sons, Abel, who was righteous; but, Cain, Adam’s other son, killed Abel. The Bible states that Abel’s works were righteous and Cain’s were evil (1 John 3:12). Then, God raised up Seth as a replacement for Abel (Genesis 4:25), and Seth was righteous like Abel. At this time, there was a separation of those from Cain and those from Seth (Genesis 4:16) until the sons of God (those from Seth) saw that the daughters of men (those from Cain) were fair and took them as wives; this resulted in an irreversible mixing of the righteous and unrighteous lines.

Concerning the giants i.e. Nephilim, there are some who believe that these giants were the result of angels taking the daughters of men as wives, supposing that the sons of God were angels. This notion originated in the book of Enoch which has been accepted as neither the Hebrew Holy Scriptures nor as Christian Bible Canon. Our conclusion is that this human-angel hybridization is contrary to both the scriptures and the genetic data. Here are our reasons:

(1) The scriptures (Genesis 6:4) clearly state that the giants existed before the sons of God took the daughters of men as wives.

. . . there were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came into the daughters of men.(Genesis 6:4)

(2) The scriptures are clear that angels don’t marry. The following are the words of Jesus:

Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. (Matthew 22:29-30; Words of Jesus in red)

(3) Humans have souls, i.e. flesh and blood, and angels do not.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)

Adam became a “living soul.” Angels are spirits and do not have flesh and blood. They can dwell in flesh and blood, but they do not have their own flesh and blood.

Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(Luc 24:39
– words of Jesus in red)

(4) We have much genetic data that has been collected over the last few decades and it shows that all human DNA can be traced to one woman and one man. Any foreign, non-human DNA would appear and be noticeable. In this case modern humans would have two origins of Y-chromosome DNA since the fathers of some would be angels and the fathers of other would be human. This is not the case.

(5) Here is another portion of scripture that speaks for itself:

Hebrews 1:4 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

Hebrews 1:5 For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?

The giants most probably had the genetic mutation which causes (gigantism, or acromegaly). Do a search on either of these words and you can read all about it. These early giants were probably the first evidence of genetic mutations and were called “Nephilim” which, in the original Hebrew, has the sense of giant, bully, and tyrant; so, they were large and took advantage of their size being bullies and tyrants, like Goliath.

Conclusion: This is an important part of human history, when the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair and took them as wives; it helps understand who we are and how we got to where we are. Also, the notion that sons of God were angels is, in our opinion, a myth.


Suggested Additional Reading:


Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible


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search topics: Giants in the Bible; Sons of God; Nephilim; and human Biblical history

How Did Kangaroos Get to Australia?


dreamstime_xxl_83061509_small_creditWhy are the kangaroos in Australia, and only in Australia? We know that all things were created in or near the Garden of Eden and migrated from there throughout the world. We know this from the scriptures: Adam named all of the animals (Genesis 2:19). Then, later, after the flood, the animals migrated again, this time from the “mountains of Ararat” (Genesis 8:4). Quite a bit is known about present-day animal migration, so it is logical that the animals knew, instinctively, where to go after their disembarkation from the Ark. The details and mechanisms of migration are not fully understood, but it is a fact that even now many animals possess this instinct.

It is not just the kangaroos who migrated to Australia, but also the zebras to Africa, the American buffalo to North America, tigers to Siberia, and the jaguar to South America, etc. Consider the personality of God; He is the master creator of life and beauty. When He created the world, it is logical that He did not want the animal kingdom to be one homogeneous mixture throughout the world, but rather He designed the Earth to declare His creative power: cold climates, warm climates, low elevations and high elevations, arid climates, humid climates, all with different mixtures of animals, plants and insects. Consider the world to be like a canvas that was painted by God, each color a different ecosystem, a masterpiece of beauty and diversity.

One can observe the present-day migration of hummingbirds, geese, salmon, butterflies, and many other migratory animals and insects: they have a powerful urge to go where God hardwired them to go. It appears that this hardwired mechanism uses magnetic flux, or scent, or celestial markers, etc., but, science has yet to identify the exact mechanism. It really doesn’t matter, we know that migration happens and we know it is hardwired. For example, the migration of the monarch butterfly takes four generations to complete one cycle. Each generation undergoes metamorphosis; these generations have no way of passing on information to their eggs other than by DNA, yet they return to the identical spot in Mexico each year. There are also mysteries with others who migrate, salmon, whales, many birds, and even zoo-plankton. Migration is a powerful instinct.

Just recently the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine was awarded to three scientists (J. O’Keefe, M.B. Moser and E. Moser) who discovered that the brain has a built-in GPS system. They discovered that the brain has grid cells that are similar to lines of longitude and latitude. This allows the brain to have access to its own nautical chart. Modern science is converging with the Bible by showing the complexity and perfection of the creation.

So, in conclusion, the kangaroo migrated to Australia twice: once after he was given a name by Adam and once after his journey on the Ark. For each of these migrations, the kangaroo journeyed to his destination; he had everything he needed including a guidance system and a strong desire to be where he belonged: in his Australian home.

Note: It is generally accepted that the sea level after the creation and also after the flood, during the ice age, was significantly lower than present sea level; this allowed passage to and from Australia on dry land. We believe that both the physical evidence (elevations of ancient civilizations) and Biblical evidence (Genesis 10:25, 1 Chronicles 1:19) support this idea.

Whom Did Cain Marry?

cainwifeDid Cain marry his sister or did he search-out and find a woman from elsewhere? Here is what the Bible says:

And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, . . . (Genesis 4:16-17 KJV)

So, by these scriptures, it is not obvious whom Cain married and from where his wife came; However, if we look at Genesis 3:20, the Bible makes it plain and simple:

And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. (Gen 3:20 KJV)

Therefore, Eve was the mother of all humanity and there were no human beings past, present, or future apart from Adam and Eve. The scriptures are clear, Eve was the mother of both Cain and Cain’s wife, his sister.

This state of affairs poses several questions that must be addressed:

(1) What about birth defects due to the close relationship of Cain and his sister?

(2) What about the Biblical and social morality laws prohibiting close relationship marriages? and,

(3) Is there any scientific evidence that either supports or contradicts the Bible concerning Eve being the mother of us all?

First, let’s start with the birth defects issue (question 1). It is a fact that when close relatives marry, their children have an increased probability of having birth defects, disease, and even early death. The theme of the Bible is that in the beginning, everything was “very good” (Genesis 1:31), and due to sin, there has been a deterioration of everything (Genesis 3:17). In the beginning, there were no genetic problems, then, after the original sin, genetic mutations started to appear and have continued to increase. So, when Adam and Eve’s children married one another, these mutations were not yet a significant problem. Actually even at the time of Abraham, some 2000 years after the creation, marrying a close relative was not a problem, and sometimes even encouraged by God (Genesis 17:19; Genesis 24:1-60; Genesis 28:10-15). Abraham married his half sister (Genesis 20:12); Isaac married his second cousin (Genesis 24:15); and Jacob married two of his first cousins (Genesis 28:1-7). It wasn’t until the time of Moses (about 2500 years after the creation) that God prohibited marrying close relatives (Leviticus 18:8-18). This was necessary to protect humanity from genetic mutations which had reached levels of concern. This notion that genetic mutations are increasing can be substantiated by the decline in lifespan from Adam who lived 930 years (Genesis 5:5), the lifespan of Moses who lived 120 years (Deuteronomy 34:7), and the present day lifespan which is approximately 67 years world-wide. Also, modern science has accepted the fact that genetic mutations are on the increase.

The next issue (question 2) concerns incest and the laws associated with it. Did God force the offspring of Adam and Eve to break the laws concerning incest? No, when Adam and Eve’s children married one another, there were no laws, Biblical or social, concerning incest. Also, remember, Adam and Eve were closer than siblings, they were identical twins (Genesis 2:21-23) except that Adam was a male (X and Y chromosome) and Eve was a female (two copies of the X chromosome). So, Adam and Eve’s children had no knowledge of or concerns about incest.

And lastly (question 3), concerning the existence of scientific evidence that either supports or contradicts Genesis 3:20, actually, there is much DNA evidence that strongly supports Genesis 3:20. DNA has been collected from humans around the globe over the past couple of decades: tens of thousands of DNA sequences. Geneticists, both secular and creationist, have used these sequences to compile a human genetic tree. This tree clearly shows that we all came from one woman. So, if any other, unrelated group of humans existed during, before or after Eve, there would necessarily be two or more family trees; but, there are not two or more, there is just one.

In conclusion, based on both Genesis and genetics, Cain married his sister.

Here are some other links with some additional background information:

Adam’s DNA
Genesis Chapter 1 and 2
Jesus’ DNA
The Genetics of Sin Nature

 

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Key words: genetics, DNA, Cain, marriage, sin, mutations, incest, close relationship marriages

Where Does Neanderthal Fit in the Bible ?

http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-silhouette-various-people-various-positions-businessmen-image64824952The Bible is clear: shortly after the creation, man sinned and became extremely wicked, so wicked that God was sorry He had made man. Then, God caused a great flood, destroying all mankind with the exception of Noah and his family. We are not sure how many souls died in this global flood, but suspect that it was many. A common question is, why is there no fossil evidence of those killed in the flood? There is fossil evidence of dinosaurs, mammoths, fish, vegetation, mosquitoes, and even raindrops, so why not evidence of the humans who died in the flood ? The answer to this question is simple and right before us: there is fossil evidence of humans dying in the flood; these humans are what are presently referred to as Neanderthal man; Neanderthal man meets the Biblical criteria for those who died in the flood very nicely.

There is no question that Neanderthal man lived on earth. Many partial skeletons have been found which have provided the scientific community with credible DNA sequences. These sequences reveal a small, but distinct genetic difference between the Neanderthal and modern man; this difference is approximately 1.3 percent in the mitochondrial DNA. If we examine the scriptures in Genesis and join them with the fossil and DNA evidence, we can explain this distinct genetic difference between Neanderthal and modern man.

Looking at the Biblical account of the flood, we find that there were sudden major changes to the environment and ecosystems. The entire earth was flooded which resulted in a change to the atmosphere which, in turn, resulted in a new ecosystem, no longer able to support huge dinosaurs with small nostrils and dragonflies with over 2 foot wingspans. Also, concerning humans, we know they lived much shorter lives after the flood as clearly documented in Genesis chapter 11. And, at the disembarkation from the Ark, God announced that He would allow the eating of meat. All of this leads us to realize that these significant changes would require a genetic reset of DNA. This genetic reset, which was executed by God, Himself, explains the distinct genetic differences between modern man and those before the flood, whom we have concluded are Neanderthals. Neanderthal fossils reveal that Neanderthal had larger brains than modern man, better bone structure, stronger teeth, better bites (occlusion), fewer genetic mutations (disease), and longer lifespan. For references and Neanderthal DNA sequences, see Neanderthal’s Identity.

Accepting Neanderthal man as those living before the flood solves many mysteries such as the following: 

  1. How did Neanderthal go extinct?

Answer: He died in the flood.

  1. Why is there no evidence of pre-flood man?

Answer: There is much evidence of pre-flood man – Neanderthal.

  1. Why is Neanderthal genetically distinct from modern man?

Answer: Neanderthal had only the first genetic reset, but Modern man had both the first and second genetic reset. See the technical paper Neanderthal’s Identity for details.

  1. Why do we have his (Neanderthal’s) genetic mutations, but he doesn’t have ours (modern man)?

Answer: He is our ancestor. Our mutations were developed after the flood, so we have both Neanderthal and modern mutations; he has only the pre-flood mutations.

  1. Why did Neanderthal not interbreed with modern man?

Answer: He couldn’t; Neanderthal and modern man were separated by the flood.

  1. Why are Neanderthal’s remains found in so many diverse locations?

Answer: The flood deposited them there.

  1. Why is Neanderthal physiologically and anatomically superior?

Answer: His DNA was closer to Adam’s.

  1. Where does Neanderthal fit in post-flood Bible genealogy?

Answer: He doesn’t. We know the DNA from the table of nations people (Genesis Chapter 10) and subsequent generations; none has the Neanderthal genetic signature.

Genesis 1 and 2 Agreement or Contradiction?

Genesis chapters 1 and 2 have been a bit of a mystery in that they appear to be in conflict with one another. However, now that we understand DNA, these two chapters converge into one creation account that is logically and chronologically perfect.

Genesis 1 documents the order of creation. Genesis chapter 2, on the other hand, documents the order in which life was given to the creation: the activation.

Everything was created before the seventh day, but the plants had not been planted and neither animals nor man had been given the breath of life; they were dormant. The Bible is clear, God rested on the seventh day; if God had given man life on the sixth day, God could not have rested on the seventh; He wouldn’t abandon Adam nor would He want to miss Adam’s first day of life; but, after God rested, He formed Adam from the earth in accordance with the DNA created and selected on day 6; then, God gave Adam the breath of life and he, Adam, became a living soul.

This notion is further supported by the parable of the farmer who planted his field with good seed and then rested (Matthew 13:24). As the farmer rested, the seeds had not yet started growing, they were still dormant, still in seed form. This is the way it was on day 7 of creation; everything was created, ready for activation, but dormant. Then, in Genesis chapter 2, after God rested, He took the DNA created on day 6 and formed man, and breathed life into him. For those of you who study Hebrew, you will see that the word used in Genesis 1 is different from the one used in Genesis 2. The word used in Genesis 1 is “bara” having the sense of selecting, and in Genesis 2 the word “yatsar” has the sense of forming or squeezing into shape much like a potter forming his pot.

Here is some of the Genesis 2 account of the creation which shows that the materials were available, the plans were complete, and then came the activation in according to the Creators design and purpose. Please consider the following excerpts from Genesis 2:

Genesis 2:5 When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up–for the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground,

Genesis 2:7 then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.

Genesis 2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

Genesis 2:9 And out of the ground the LORD God made to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

Genesis 2:15 The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.

Genesis 2:19 Now out of the ground the LORD God had formed every beast of the field and every bird of the heavens and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. And whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name.

Genesis 2:20 The man gave names to all livestock and to the birds of the heavens and to every beast of the field. . (ESV)

So, Adam was given life first, then the plants, then the animals. It all makes sense.

This also explains Genesis 5:2 which has been a mystery until now:

Genesis 5:2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created. (KJV)

He created them male and female and called their name Adam. He called their name Adam. Adam embodied all human genetic variation. Your genes, my genes, everyone’s genes were in Adam. We were all created on day 6 and God called our name “Adam;” the name “Adam” means “man.” It goes on to say “in the day when they were created.” Again, the they is we. Our DNA was created on day six, but we were formed and given life in our mother’s womb.

Dear friends and children, know that the Bible is true and can be trusted. Genesis chapters one and two are logically and chronologically perfect.


Adam’s Rib

The Bible is the basis for all science. Consider the Biblical account of the creation of Eve.

Genesis 2:21 -22 So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. And the rib that the LORD God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. (ESV)

This is an interesting scripture. Adam was formed first from the earth, then Eve was made from Adam’s rib.

I recently read an article of a man who was in a serious automobile accident; he lived, but required many reconstruction surgeries on his face and cranium. He noticed that the doctor was using rib material for the reconstruction, and it appeared that the doctor kept using the same rib. Before one surgery the man asked the doctor when would he have to start using a different rib. The surgeon told him that it wouldn’t be necessary since human ribs regenerate.

This seemed amazing, so I checked it out. It is true, PubMedID: 7332200 documents 12 patients that were subject to cranioplasty surgery using their human ribs to rebuild cranium bone damage. Forty-two pieces of rib, average length 13 cm were removed to rebuild the cranium. All 12 patients “had solid protection of the brain” and “complete regeneration of the donor rib.”

The rib is the only human bone that regenerates. Isn’t it lucky the Bible picked the right bone. No, actually, it wasn’t luck, God designed it that way and the Bible is the Word of God.

The fact that the rib regenerates supports another scripture:

Genesis 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (KJV)

If Adam would have had a missing rib, the creation wouldn’t be “very good,” it would be blemished. However, we now know that Adam was totally restored to the “very good” condition; science confirms what has been in Genesis all along.

Here is another significant scientific fact concerning the creation of Eve. Adam, being human male, had one X and one Y chromosome; Eve had two X’s. This may be a small point, but it shows that all the genetic information required to create Eve was in Adam. So, Eve could be taken from Adam, but Adam could not be taken from Eve. It all works and the Bible stands, pure.

If the Bible were used as the basis of science, we wouldn’t waste so much time and resources. We are finding that the Bible accurately describes dark mass and energy, genetics, zoology, geology, paleontology, linguistics, and physics. The Bible has stood, stands, and will stand forever.

Post Note: It is a myth that women have fewer ribs than men.

 

Adam’s DNA

According to the Bible, Adam was created in God’s image  approximately 6000 years ago. Now that we are beginning to understand DNA, we can determine Adam’s DNA; and by understanding Adam’s DNA, and how it relates to us, we can make some significant progress in understanding who we really are and how we fit into the Kingdom of God.

Genesis 2:7  And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. (KJV)

So, Adam became a living soul, the first living soul. This means that he necessarily had all of the human genetic variations in his DNA. Everyone, including Eve, came from Adam’s DNA.

(Note: If the Bible proclaimed that the first human were a woman, the Bible would be in error since women do not have the Y-Chromosome, without which man could not have been formed from the woman’s rib DNA. This is why it is called the Bible.)

Every human being has two sets of genes, one from their father and one from their mother. These genes are generally dominant or recessive. If you get two dominant genes, that trait will be dominant. If you get two recessive genes, that trait will be recessive. If you get one dominant and one recessive gene, that trait will be dominant. This means that Adam had one dominant and one recessive gene for each trait; so, in effect, we know Adam’s DNA and we have an idea what he looked like: he had dominant genetic traits.

Humans have approximately 22,000 genes and combinations of these genes give us variation in physical appearance such as eye color, nose shape, foot size, etc. These genes also affect our abilities and personality.

So, we know that Adam had all human variation in him and therefore one dominant and one recessive gene for each of the genes. Based on current understanding of dominant traits, we can be reasonably sure that Adam had unattached earlobes, dimples, was right handed, had a widow’s peak hairline, and curly hair. All of these traits are dominant traits.

This is all very interesting, but, now we need to get into the spiritual: Adam embodied all of humanity, including Eve and you and me. Please read this one very carefully, the key word here is “them”:

Genesis 5:2  Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.(KJV)

So, all of humanity was created on day six. Adam was formed and given life after God’s rest, Eve was formed and given life shortly thereafter, and you and I were formed and given life in our mother’s womb. This is why God said to Jeremiah:

Jeremiah 1:4  Then the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

Jeremiah 1:5  Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee . . . (KJV)

When Adam sinned, he became corruptible and took on the sin nature. Since Adam embodied all of humanity, we all went down with him and also took on the sin nature. Part of this sin nature is the corruption of our genes in the form of mutations. Today, every generation has approximately 70 more genetic mutations than the previous generation. These mutations can result in deformation, disorders and disease; genetic mutations are never good. This is a bit discouraging, but we have the promise that in a twinkling of an eye, our DNA will be restored to the day 6 splendor. This is good news, this is the Gospel.

I Corinthians 15:51  Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,

I Corinthians 15:52  In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

I Corinthians 15:53  For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. (KJV)

My dear friends and children, we have gone through much here on earth, but our future is very bright: We have the hope of being redeemed and restored to our original , day six, self.

To do: Study some basic biology with your children in the context of the Bible:

   (1) Learn about recessive and dominant genes.

   (2) Put together a list of Adam’s probable physical traits.