Category Archives: Kinds and Noah’s Ark

How Many Animals were on Noah’s Ark According to DNA (Or, The Genetic Distinction of Kinds)


One lingering mystery concerning Noah’s ark is: How many animals were on board? Since DNA has a very good reputation for solving mysteries in the courtroom, now it’s time to unleash its powers and reveal Noah’s passenger list.

As we look about the earth we see a multitude of animals reproducing after their kind, each retaining their distinction as a kind/specie. How does this happen? Two things are required for kinds/species to remain distinct:

(1) They must have the desire (instincts coded in their DNA) to mate with their own kind/species and

(2) They must have the ability (compatible DNA) to produce viable offspring like themselves.

These two requirements are the basis for both the Biblical and secular scientific definition of species/kinds. The words species and kinds are synonyms, but usually “species” is used by the secular scientific community and “kinds” is used by the Biblical community. Nonetheless, both words should define the same creatures, and our conclusion is that they do. Our position is as follows:

Fundamentally, all of the species currently defined by modern science were on the Ark

Consider humans, we have the desire and ability to produce more humans like ourselves. We know that we cannot produce a pig or a chimpanzee because we do not have the genetic ability in our DNA
to do so.

Next, consider the great horned owls, they desire to mate with other great horned owls and they have the ability to produce other great horned owls. However, their DNA does not produce the desire or the ability to create a bluebird, a barn owl, or even an eagle owl which is the same genus as the great horned owl.

We wrote a technical paper, The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls, and Doves, and found that not one of the owl kinds/species we examined could possibly produce any other owl kinds/species. That is also true for the ravens and doves. They differ from one another by too much genetic information. We also wrote a technical paper, A Study of Biblical Kinds Using 62 Species of Mice; which showed the various species/kinds of mouse DNA differed from one another by significant amounts with distinct DNA gaps between the kinds/species. It would be impossible to bridge these gaps by means of any natural process.

Our study of the mouse was very interesting in that we found that there are more than one hundredmouse_credit
mouse kinds/species and they all remain distinct. How do they do it? They have been magnificently designed with the desire and ability to reproduce after their kinds. Here are a few facts: They can read each other’s genetics like a barcode
(Ref 1). They mate only with their own species (Ref 2). They don’t breed with close relatives (Ref 3) and the males do not mate with under aged females (Ref 4). All of this is coded in the DNA and not only does it preserve their distinctiveness, but also maintains good genetic health. You may read all about it, get all of the references, and gain access to all of the DNA sequences at: A Study of Biblical Kinds Using 62 Species of Mice.

If only a few kinds would have been on the Ark, there would only be a few kinds now. The scriptures are clear: “every” kind was created (Genesis 1); “every” kind was loaded on the Ark (Genesis 6:19-20); and “every” kind disembarked from the Ark (Genesis 8:17-20). The kinds were distinct and remain distinct.

Our conclusion would necessitate that on the order of 6000 amphibian, 10,000 bird, 6,000 mammal, and 8,000 reptile kinds/species were aboard the Ark. Accounting for pairs, sevens of clean animals, and those that have gone extinct since the flood, the total number aboard the Ark would be on the order of 100,000. This would be no problem for the very large Ark with all of the animals in Biblical “deep sleep” (Ref 5)

As we look at this glorious creation, we see that the kinds are distinct. They are distinct because they have both the desire and ability to mate with their own kind and produce offspring of like kind. God always does things right, and in order to replenish the earth properly, He gave every kind a berth on the Ark. All of the passengers were peacefully asleep being transported to a new world filled with adventure and hope.

Key words:

Animals of the Ark, Species on the Ark, Kinds on the Ark, Noah’s Ark, Noah’s Ark, species vs. kinds, and DNA Noah’s Ark

Additional Suggested Reading:

Noah’s Ark A Fresh Look

Noah’s Ark Hermetically Sealed and Safe


1. Beynon, R.J. and Hurst, J.L., 2003. Multiple roles of major urinary proteins in the house mouse, Mus domesticus., Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Feb;31(Pt 1):142-6. PMID:12546672.

2. Lane, R.P., Young, J., Newman, T., and Trask, B.J., 2004. Species specificity in rodent pheromone receptor repertoires. Genome Res. 14: 603-608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

3. Sherborne, A.L., Michael D., Thom, M.D., Paterson, S., Jury, F., Ollier, W.E.R., Stockley, P., Beynon, R.J. and Hurst, J.L., 2007. The Genetic Basis of Inbreeding Avoidance in House Mice, Current Biology 17, 2061–2066, December 4, 2007.

4. Ferrero, D.M., Moeller, L.M., Osakada T., Horio, N., Li, Q., Dheeraj S.R., Cichy, A., Spehr, M. Touhara, K. Liberles, S.D., 2013. A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system.
Nature, 2013; DOI:


Noah’s Drunkenness, Ham, and the Curse of Canaan: Mystery Solved? And Who was Noah’s Wife?

Many verses in the Bible are mysteries just waiting to be unraveled. The happenings after the flood harbor one of these grand mysteries: after disembarkation from the Ark, Noah planted a vineyard, and when grapes were produced, he made wine, got drunk, and passed out in his tent; then his son Ham walked in on him (Noah) and something happened that resulted in the birth of Canaan. The name “Canaan” means “humiliated” and is our first clue in solving this mystery. After the happenings in the tent, Noah cursed Canaan: He didn’t curse Ham nor did he curse himself, but he cursed Canaan, and at the root of this mystery is the question – why?

For us, at Genesis and Genetics, this event is important because it can help us on our quest to understand the genetic details of human migration. After merging our understanding of the genetics of sin nature and the early chapters of Genesis, we believe we now understand the mystery of Noah’s drunkenness, Ham’s actions, and Noah’s curse on Canaan. The key to unraveling the mystery is recognizing the identity of Noah’s wife. First, please allow us to state our theory, and then we will defend it:

wifeNThe sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair and took them as wives (Genesis 6:2), and Noah was one of these “sons of God” and the “daughter of man” that Noah took for a wife was named Naamah from the line of Cain. Then, after the flood, when Noah got drunk, Noah’s son, Ham, had sex with his mother, Naamah, who, as a result of this union, bore a son named Canaan. Noah knew how this would affect the balance of good and evil, and cursed the unborn child. After Babel, Noah and his wife split up due to the humiliation; she went with Canaan, and Noah went with Shem and his offspring.

There is much evidence to promote the above notion, and if true, it explains this grand mystery and helps us understand our roots.

First, we need to look at the genealogy of Noah and Naamah. Genesis chapter 4 gives us the genealogy of Cain which ends with a woman named Naamah. Genesis chapter 5 gives us the genealogy of Seth which ends with Noah.


Cain                   Seth


Naamah                Noah


We know that Noah was on the Ark, so, it only makes sense that Naamah was also on the Ark as Noah’s wife. If Naamah were not on the Ark, there would be no reason to document her family line since they would have perished in the flood. The Bible does not waste words and every verse is significant. In this case, Cain’s lineage is very significant in that he, Cain, contributed to our genetics significantly, on the order of half. Also, it should be noted that Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters (Genesis 5:4), the genealogy of which were not documented: there was no need – they and their offspring perished in the flood.

We, at Genesis and Genetics, are convinced that Naamah was, indeed, Noah’s wife. Here is our reasoning:

(a)  She is the last one mentioned in the line of Cain before the flood.

(b)  Generally, in Biblical lineages, only the men are listed. In the case of Naamah, not only is she listed but also, her father and mother are included. This implies that she is a very important person in our family tree.

(c)  Some Jewish traditions cite Naamah as Noah’s wife  (Reference)

(d)  There was a town in Canaan conquered by Joshua named Naamah. Biblical towns are generally named after the men, but this one was named after a woman: Naamah.

Noah planted a vineyard and got drunk. Then, Ham, Noah’s son, committed some act that resulted in a curse placed on Canaan. These happening have been heavily debated by theologians: some say Ham saw that Noah was naked; some say Ham committed a homosexual act with Noah; and some say it is and will remain an unsolved mystery; but there is another possibility that we have accepted. We have concluded that Ham went into the tent and had sex with his mother; this union produced Canaan. When Noah woke up, he cursed Canaan, Ham’s unborn son. Noah didn’t curse himself, nor did he curse Ham, but he cursed Canaan and gave him the name which means “humiliated.” This is the only scenario that makes sense and here are our reasons for promoting this view:

(a)  The term saw the “nakedness of his father” (Genesis 9:22) is the same term as used in the Levitical law when dealing with incest (e.g. Leviticus 20:11 “And the man that lieth with his father’s wife hath uncovered his father’s nakedness:” – KJV). This clearly means having sexual relations.

(b)  Noah knew that the result of this union would upset the balance of good and evil (1 John 3:12, Genesis 4:25).

The Biblical history of Noah ends when Noah curses Canaan (Genesis 9 25-29). However, we know that Noah lived 350 years after disembarkation from the Ark (Genesis 9:29). We are not sure how long Naamah lived after leaving the Ark, but assume she lived through the time of the scattering at Babel. Even though the scriptures don’t directly account for Noah’s and Naamah’s whereabouts, we can speculate that Noah was sufficiently humiliated so his relationship with Naamah cooled, possibly to the point of being estranged. Naamah, perhaps, was protective of her son Canaan and went with him after the Babel scattering and dwelt in the land of Canaan. Noah, on the other hand, perhaps, dwelt with his son Shem or someone in the Shem line. The supporting evidence for this is the account of Abraham and Job both of whom came from the line of Shem and had very deep spiritual understanding; this would be indicative of a close and extended connection with Noah.

So, how about those of us who have Canaanite genes? Unfortunately, we all have Canaanite genes. Since Canaan was born so early in the post-flood history, his DNA is thoroughly mixed into all of us. We all need redemption.

We are sure this blog will inspire diverse opinions and comments, and we welcome them.

Additional reading:

The Sons of God and the Daughters of Man

The Genetics of Sin Nature

Unraveling Babel – Date and Population


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Noah’s Ark – Hermetically Sealed and Safe

In a previous blog (Noah’s Ark – A Fresh Look), we made the case for the notion that all the creatures on the Ark were in a Biblical “deep sleep.” As we continued our study of the Ark, we came across a very interesting couple of verses:

And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.
And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: (Genesis 8:5-6 KJV)

dreamstime_l_22493289_smallThese verses strongly imply that the one window (Genesis 6:16) on the Ark was closed during the voyage and not opened until near disembarkation (10 months + 40 days, i.e. approximately 340 days out of the approximate one year voyage of the Ark). Imagine tens of thousands of animals and eight humans living on the Ark with active metabolisms for nearly a year with the only window closed! Why wasn’t it open to get fresh air? So, knowing that the window was closed brings us to the likelihood that the Ark was hermetically sealed, i.e. no air/gases or liquids could enter or leave the Ark. Let us reason together and consider the possibility that the Ark was, in fact, hermetically sealed. Consider:


  1. The Bible states that the Ark was sealed inside and outside with pitch (Genesis 6:14). Sealing the Ark both outside and inside keeps air/gases or liquids from coming in or going out. The Hebrew word used for applying the pitch is “kaphar” which means to “cover,” the implication being that the Ark was completely covered, both above and below the water line, inside and out.
  2. During the flood, many creatures died outside the Ark causing health hazards such as gastroenteritis, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and cholera. These diseases could be transferred through the air, water, and/or insects. The passengers on the Ark would be vulnerable to these diseases and the result would be a colossal mess, if not death to all, unless the Ark were hermetically sealed.
  3. Having the Ark hermetically sealed would also sound proof the Ark. This creates a comforting mental image of the Ark in the center of the greatest catastrophic event of all time with the passengers resting in a Biblical “deep sleep” peaceably and quietly. Don’t forget that the name “Noah” in Hebrew (Noach) means “rest” and “quiet.”
  4. The obvious question is: how could all of those on the Ark survive without oxygen? The answer is that there was plenty of oxygen in the Ark; it just had to be recycled. This is not a problem for God; even we humans can do it in the space station; and, those in the space station are awake with active metabolisms.

Studying the events of the early days of humanity is fascinating. Someday we will be with the Lord and it will be all revealed; but, until then we can use the Bible and our relationship with the Teacher (Holy Spirit) to see how close we can get to the truth. We at Genesis and Genetics want to go on record as stating that we believe the Ark was hermetically sealed. We always reserve the right to be wrong, but this is our stance. Please let us know if you have any evidence that either supports or refutes this notion.

Suggested Additional Reading:

Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible

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Noah’s Ark – A Fresh Look

dreamstime_l_22493289_smallThe account of Noah’s Ark is central to our faith. It shows that God has power and authority over all creation and all life. He used his power and authority in a spectacular way: a global flood. This global flood is explained in detail in the book of Genesis. One point of curiosity is: how did God keep so many animals alive for so long on the Ark? In this blog, we will look at what we know about the Ark and God’s toolbox to see if we can solve this mystery.

If one studies the detailed description of the Ark, with three decks and one window, it first appears that the Ark was best suited for growing mushrooms. However, we know God wanted to deliver more than mushrooms to the new world, and we know that God understands perfectly His creation and He is the author of life. Indeed, He delivered all those on the Ark to the new world without losing one (Genesis 8:18-19 ); and, amazingly, they were on the Ark for over a year. To do this took divine wisdom , but how did God chose to do it?

First of all, the name Noah means quiet, rest, and comfort. This may be a key. Maybe the voyage of Noah’s Ark was quiet, restful, and comforting. Maybe the creatures were put in some sort of trance or sleep. If we check the Bible, we see that God has something in His toolbox that would accomplish this, and that is “Deep Sleep,” in Hebrew, tardemah. We see tardemah used several times: once for alleviating pain, when Adam had his rib removed to form Eve (Genesis 2:21); once for revealing the future to Abraham, as he was entering into a new covenant with God (Genesis 15:12); and, once for protecting prey from the predator, when Saul and his army of 3000 had David surrounded (1 Samuel 26:12). The Ark had all three of these needs: (1) God needed to prepare the creation physically for the new ecosystem which included eating meat, shorter life expectancy, and a different climate; (2) God was initiating a new covenant and needed to brief the creation on what to expect as well as comfort them; and, (3) He needed to protect the prey from the predators. It all fits and make sense. Not only did the deep sleep suit these needs, but also solved all the problems concerning workload, air quality, fresh water and food requirements, light, and space.

Even though the Ark carried many creatures, the Ark would have been quiet, and peaceful, and restful, just like the meaning of Noah’s name. So, here we can see a comforting picture: Noah’s Ark on the ocean with all the creatures asleep, knowing that they would be delivered safely to the new world, the new ecosystem, and the new covenant. When the time was right to disembark from the Ark, they would go their separate ways, and, for the first time, see the rainbow of promise.

For references and technical information, please read  The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls,and Doves

For Additional reading , please consider: Noah’s Ark Hermetically sealed and Safe

Key words: Deep Sleep; Noah’s Ark; Number of animals on Noah’s Ark; Global Flood; and new post-flood world