Unraveling Babel – Date and Population


ziggurat_mod_smallAt Genesis and Genetics, we are currently working on human migration. In order to understand the migration, it is helpful to know the population and date of the scattering of humanity from Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). The genealogy presented in Genesis chapters 10 and 11 has allowed us to extract both the date and population at this pivotal event in the history of man.


We have concluded that the date was 116 ± 15 years after the flood and the population was approximately 126.

We know, for sure, that the scattering occurred before the time of Abraham since Abraham came from the land of Ur (Genesis 11:31, Genesis 12:1), and not Babel. From Table 1, we see that Abraham was born 292 years after the flood; therefore, we have a boundary time frame.

Table 1. Ten Generations (of Shem) after the Flood




Age at First Childs birth

(Chapter 10)

(Chapter 11)

Years after Flood

Arphaxad Arphaxad



Shelah Shelah



Eber Eber



Peleg Peleg





















Note: figure 1 was compiled from Genesis chapters 10 and 11.

Now we can further refine the date by using Genesis chapter 10 which is called the “table of nations.” Chapter 10 documents those who were the founders of nations and were presumably at Babel. We know that Noah had three sons, Ham, Shem, and Japheth; and through these three sons the entire world was populated. Genesis chapter 10 ends with the following verse:

Genesis 10:32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood. (ESV)

Therefore, we can deduce that those not listed in the table of nations were born after the scattering. From Figure 1, we see that Peleg was born 101 years after the flood. Peleg was mentioned in the table of nations, but his son Rue was not mentioned, nor was any of Shem’s ancestry after Peleg. From figure 1, we see that Peleg was 30 years old when he begot Rue; therefore, the scattering had to happen during the first 30 years of Peleg’s life. This allows us to conclude that the scattering happened during the year 116 ± 15 years after the flood.

Now concerning the population at the time of the scattering, it is simply the table of nations population (the 62 men called by name in Genesis chapter 10 times two = 124) plus Noah and his wife (126). This assumes that there were equal numbers of men and women.

In summary, we can be assured that the dispersion at Babel happened before the birth of Abraham 292 years after the flood; and using Genesis chapter 10 as the documentation of the individuals at the time of the scattering, we conclude it happened 116 plus or minus 15 years after the flood, and the population was very close to 126. These are the numbers we will use for our forth coming human migration studies.

Additional points of interest:

(1) Noah lived 350 years after the flood, but his activities after the incident in the cave (Genesis 9:20-27) were not documented.

(2) Noah and Abraham coexisted on the earth for 58 years. Abraham’s birth was 292 years after the flood and Noah lived 350 after the flood (350-292=58).

(3) Noah was not included in Genesis chapter 10 (table of nations), so we are not sure with which family he dwelt. We feel there is a strong chance that Noah migrated with Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, or Peleg and knew Abraham very well teaching Abraham the things that he, Noah, had learned directly from God.

(4) There is also a good probability that Noah greatly influenced Job and his friends. This is a subject of a future blog.

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Noah’s Ark – Hermetically Sealed and Safe

In a previous blog (Noah’s Ark – A Fresh Look), we made the case for the notion that all the creatures on the Ark were in a Biblical “deep sleep.” As we continued our study of the Ark, we came across a very interesting couple of verses:

And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.
And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: (Genesis 8:5-6 KJV)

dreamstime_l_22493289_smallThese verses strongly imply that the one window (Genesis 6:16) on the Ark was closed during the voyage and not opened until near disembarkation (10 months + 40 days, i.e. approximately 340 days out of the approximate one year voyage of the Ark). Imagine tens of thousands of animals and eight humans living on the Ark with active metabolisms for nearly a year with the only window closed! Why wasn’t it open to get fresh air? So, knowing that the window was closed brings us to the likelihood that the Ark was hermetically sealed, i.e. no air/gases or liquids could enter or leave the Ark. Let us reason together and consider the possibility that the Ark was, in fact, hermetically sealed. Consider:


  1. The Bible states that the Ark was sealed inside and outside with pitch (Genesis 6:14). Sealing the Ark both outside and inside keeps air/gases or liquids from coming in or going out. The Hebrew word used for applying the pitch is “kaphar” which means to “cover,” the implication being that the Ark was completely covered, both above and below the water line, inside and out.
  2. During the flood, many creatures died outside the Ark causing health hazards such as gastroenteritis, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and cholera. These diseases could be transferred through the air, water, and/or insects. The passengers on the Ark would be vulnerable to these diseases and the result would be a colossal mess, if not death to all, unless the Ark were hermetically sealed.
  3. Having the Ark hermetically sealed would also sound proof the Ark. This creates a comforting mental image of the Ark in the center of the greatest catastrophic event of all time with the passengers resting in a Biblical “deep sleep” peaceably and quietly. Don’t forget that the name “Noah” in Hebrew (Noach) means “rest” and “quiet.”
  4. The obvious question is: how could all of those on the Ark survive without oxygen? The answer is that there was plenty of oxygen in the Ark; it just had to be recycled. This is not a problem for God; even we humans can do it in the space station; and, those in the space station are awake with active metabolisms.

Studying the events of the early days of humanity is fascinating. Someday we will be with the Lord and it will be all revealed; but, until then we can use the Bible and our relationship with the Teacher (Holy Spirit) to see how close we can get to the truth. We at Genesis and Genetics want to go on record as stating that we believe the Ark was hermetically sealed. We always reserve the right to be wrong, but this is our stance. Please let us know if you have any evidence that either supports or refutes this notion.

Suggested Additional Reading:

Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible

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The Sons of God and the Daughters of Man (and Giants)

In the book of Genesis, there is a very interesting scripture that states:

“… the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.” (Genesis 6:2)

This scripture is nestled in with other scriptures that talk about population increase, giants, great wickedness, and culminates with God confessing that He was broken hearted (Genesis 6:6); He was broken hearted to the point of being sorry He had made mankind (also Genesis 6:6). Here are the scriptures in context:

Genesis 6:1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
Genesis 6:2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
Genesis 6:3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Genesis 6:6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
Genesis 6:7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. (KJV)

What does all this mean? Let’s start by reviewing the early history of man: God created man (Adam) in God’s image and this creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31). Then, Adam sinned and became a mortal being, separated from God and destined to die. However, God was pleased with one of Adam’s sons, Abel, who was righteous; but, Cain, Adam’s other son, killed Abel. The Bible states that Abel’s works were righteous and Cain’s were evil (1 John 3:12). Then, God raised up Seth as a replacement for Abel (Genesis 4:25), and Seth was righteous like Abel. At this time, there was a separation of those from Cain and those from Seth (Genesis 4:16) until the sons of God (those from Seth) saw that the daughters of men (those from Cain) were fair and took them as wives; this resulted in an irreversible mixing of the righteous and unrighteous lines.

Concerning the giants i.e. Nephilim, there are some who believe that these giants were the result of angels taking the daughters of men as wives, supposing that the sons of God were angels. This notion originated in the book of Enoch which has been accepted as neither the Hebrew Holy Scriptures nor as Christian Bible Canon. Our conclusion is that this human-angel hybridization is contrary to both the scriptures and the genetic data. Here are our reasons:

(1) The scriptures (Genesis 6:4) clearly state that the giants existed before the sons of God took the daughters of men as wives.

. . . there were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came into the daughters of men.(Genesis 6:4)

(2) The scriptures are clear that angels don’t marry. The following are the words of Jesus:

Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. (Matthew 22:29-30; Words of Jesus in red)

(3) Humans have souls, i.e. flesh and blood, and angels do not.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)

Adam became a “living soul.” Angels are spirits and do not have flesh and blood. They can dwell in flesh and blood, but they do not have their own flesh and blood.

Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(Luc 24:39
– words of Jesus in red)

(4) We have much genetic data that has been collected over the last few decades and it shows that all human DNA can be traced to one woman and one man. Any foreign, non-human DNA would appear and be noticeable. In this case modern humans would have two origins of Y-chromosome DNA since the fathers of some would be angels and the fathers of other would be human. This is not the case.

(5) Here is another portion of scripture that speaks for itself:

Hebrews 1:4 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

Hebrews 1:5 For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?

The giants most probably had the genetic mutation which causes (gigantism, or acromegaly). Do a search on either of these words and you can read all about it. These early giants were probably the first evidence of genetic mutations and were called “Nephilim” which, in the original Hebrew, has the sense of giant, bully, and tyrant; so, they were large and took advantage of their size being bullies and tyrants, like Goliath.

Conclusion: This is an important part of human history, when the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair and took them as wives; it helps understand who we are and how we got to where we are. Also, the notion that sons of God were angels is, in our opinion, a myth.

Suggested Additional Reading:

Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible

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search topics: Giants in the Bible; Sons of God; Nephilim; and human Biblical history

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How Did Kangaroos Get to Australia?

dreamstime_xxl_83061509_small_creditWhy are the kangaroos in Australia, and only in Australia? We know that all things were created in or near the Garden of Eden and migrated from there throughout the world. We know this from the scriptures: Adam named all of the animals (Genesis 2:19). Then, later, after the flood, the animals migrated again, this time from the “mountains of Ararat” (Genesis 8:4). Quite a bit is known about present-day animal migration, so it is logical that the animals knew, instinctively, where to go after their disembarkation from the Ark. The details and mechanisms of migration are not fully understood, but it is a fact that even now many animals possess this instinct.

It is not just the kangaroos who migrated to Australia, but also the zebras to Africa, the American buffalo to North America, tigers to Siberia, and the jaguar to South America, etc. Consider the personality of God; He is the master creator of life and beauty. When He created the world, it is logical that He did not want the animal kingdom to be one homogeneous mixture throughout the world, but rather He designed the Earth to declare His creative power: cold climates, warm climates, low elevations and high elevations, arid climates, humid climates, all with different mixtures of animals, plants and insects. Consider the world to be like a canvas that was painted by God, each color a different ecosystem, a masterpiece of beauty and diversity.

One can observe the present-day migration of hummingbirds, geese, salmon, butterflies, and many other migratory animals and insects: they have a powerful urge to go where God hardwired them to go. It appears that this hardwired mechanism uses magnetic flux, or scent, or celestial markers, etc., but, science has yet to identify the exact mechanism. It really doesn’t matter, we know that migration happens and we know it is hardwired. For example, the migration of the monarch butterfly takes four generations to complete one cycle. Each generation undergoes metamorphosis; these generations have no way of passing on information to their eggs other than by DNA, yet they return to the identical spot in Mexico each year. There are also mysteries with others who migrate, salmon, whales, many birds, and even zoo-plankton. Migration is a powerful instinct.

Just recently the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine was awarded to three scientists (J. O’Keefe, M.B. Moser and E. Moser) who discovered that the brain has a built-in GPS system. They discovered that the brain has grid cells that are similar to lines of longitude and latitude. This allows the brain to have access to its own nautical chart. Modern science is converging with the Bible by showing the complexity and perfection of the creation.

So, in conclusion, the kangaroo migrated to Australia twice: once after he was given a name by Adam and once after his journey on the Ark. For each of these migrations, the kangaroo journeyed to his destination; he had everything he needed including a guidance system and a strong desire to be where he belonged: in his Australian home.

Note: It is generally accepted that the sea level after the creation and also after the flood, during the ice age, was significantly lower than present sea level; this allowed passage to and from Australia on dry land. We believe that both the physical evidence (elevations of ancient civilizations) and Biblical evidence (Genesis 10:25, 1 Chronicles 1:19) support this idea.

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The Genetics of Good Works

There appears to be a universal affinity to help others and do good works just as there is a universal affinity to sin; and, it appears that this nature to do good works is, at least somewhat, independent of religion.

Here is a scripture that supports the notion that we were created with the inherent tendency to do good works:

Ephesians 2:10
For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

If we continue to explore this concept, we realize that this affinity to do good works must be hardwired into man; and, if so, we cannot take credit for them. This principle is unique to, and ever present in, Christianity.

Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

Ephesians 2:9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

I appreciate this principle. It would be very unpleasant to be in paradise with someone boasting about how much he or she accomplished. It would be so much more pleasant to be with those who were saved by grace and had nothing to boast about, except the power and glory of Christ.

This is why the Bible teaches that faith, not good works, is the only way to please God; faith is independent of the hardwired nature of good works and the hardwired nature to sin. Here is a scripture that makes it clear:

Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him:

So, if we do good works, we should not boast – it is expected; we were created to do good works. If we perform great acts of benevolence, assume a high position in the church; conduct successful evangelical campaigns; or discover the cure for cancer, we have no reason to boast; this is what is expected of us.

One day a group of people presented themselves to Jesus; they wanted to do good works that were pleasing to God. They posed a very interesting question to Jesus:

John 6:28 Then they said to him, “What must we do, to be doing the works of God?” (ESV)


Jesus responded:


John 6:29 Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.” (ESV-words of Jesus in red)


This is the heart of Jesus’ teachings: it’s all about faith. Our work is to believe. Good works are in our nature, in our DNA, and we are ordained to do them; but, faith “in him whom he has sent” is the work that is pleasing to God.

Please also read our blog on The Genetics of Sin Nature .

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Eve’s DNA

xxl_84904001-CreditThe account of Eve is an interesting and important segment of our genetic history. The Bible says that God put Adam into a deep sleep, took one of Adam’s ribs, and made a woman (Genesis 2:21-22). Adam named her Eve and proclaimed that she was “bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23-24).

So, how does modern science line up with this account? First of all, does the man’s rib contain enough genetic information to make a woman. The answer is “yes,” Adam’s ribs contained many copies of the genetic information required to make a woman. However, it is interesting to note that if the first human were a woman, her rib would not contain enough information to make a man. This is because women do not have the y-chromosome. So, if the Bible stated that the woman was created first and man was formed from her rib, the Bible would be in error; but, the Bible got it right and stands true. This all seems elementary to us now, but remember that the scriptures were given to us long before any discoveries of the workings of genetics and DNA.

It follows, from both a Biblical and genetic perspective, that Eve was Adam’s feminine identical twin. When Adam said that Eve was “bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23-24), he was confirming this point. Is this possible? Can there be male/female identical twins? Yes, it is possible: if a geneticist takes two identical twin embryos and genetically engineers them so one has two X chromosomes and the other has one X and one Y chromosomes, the resulting two humans will be identical male/female twins. Although rare, there are natural occurrences of male/female identical twins. For further information on this, just do an internet search on “male/female identical twins.”

A common question to this notion of Adam and Eve being identical male/female twins is: “If Adam and Eve were identical twins, wouldn’t all their children also be identical to Adam and/or Eve?” The answer to this question is “No.” Adam and Eve were identical twins and they each had two copies of every gene: one dominant and one recessive gene. Due to a biological process called “meiosis,” these genes were shuffled differently for each of their children, so the chances of a child having identical DNA to Adam and/or Eve is one out of a number too big to print on this page. This process of meiosis is easily understood, just search on “meiosis” and you will find many videos and detailed explanations.

In addition, it is the consensus of both creation and secular scientists that all humans presently on earth come from one woman: “Eve” (creationists) and “Mitochondrial Eve” (secular scientists).

Genesis 3:20  And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

In conclusion, Eve’s genetic heritage is a fascinating bit of our history that helps us understand our origins. It also demonstrates the convergence of modern science with Biblical truth.

Here are some related articles if interested.

Adam’s DNA

Adam’s Rib

Genesis Chapter 1 and 2


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Key words: Genesis and genetics, Eve’s DNA, Adam and Eve, marriage of identical twins, identical male female twins


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The Gospel According to DNA

DNA is the code that defines our flesh and blood. It is complex to the extreme, and it contains the information that builds and maintains our bodies; our bodies are filled with little factories that assemble proteins; proofreaders that check instructions; little transporters that deliver building material to the factories and other users; there are gates with gate keepers; mechanisms that police the body looking for invaders; and more than 90,000 other mechanisms that build, regulate, and orchestrate body functions. All those who study DNA are amazed by it. So, from where did this marvelous DNA come and how did it develop into its present state?

Let’s go back in time approximately 6000 years ago, just before the creation. All things were in Christ, including our DNA. At this point all things (atoms, molecules, stars, animals, and humans) were just an idea, not yet formed or activated. Then, the idea of the creation was released in the form of Word, and on day 6 of the creation, the idea of man was spoken into existence (Genesis 1:26); at the end of day 6, God proclaimed the entire creation to be “very good” (Genesis 1:31), this included our DNA in its “very good” state. Then, after God rested on day seven (Genesis 2:2), Adam was formed (Genesis 2:7) and he received the breath of life from God, and Adam became a living soul, i.e. functioning flesh and blood. Fittingly, the name “Adam” means “mankind,” so, all of us alive today were in Adam. All of our genes were in him in the form DNA. It was God’s intention that Adam live forever; therefore, his DNA, and ours, was intended to be eternal.

However, once Adam was given life, humanity’s DNA became vulnerable, it was no longer safe in Christ, but subject to free will and the darkness (Genesis 1:4); God took a risk. Then, unfortunately, sin did enter the world through Adam (Romans 5:12). We, today, suffer from sin: our sins, our family’s sin, our nation’s sin, and Adam’s sin. Part of this suffering is the result of mutations in our DNA; these mutations, which were planted by Satan (Matthew 13:25), cause disease, deformities, death, and other deteriorations of our flesh and blood.

Our present DNA is corrupted and its destiny is death; but, the good news is that the original copy still exists, safely in Christ; and, all we have to do to be restored to our original day 6 DNA is to also be “in Christ” where we are safe and will live forever, even if we die. Here are some supporting scriptures to this notion:

1 Corinthians 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

1 Corinthians 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

1 Corinthians 15:54 So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. (KJV)

John 11:25
. . . I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: (Words of Jesus in red KJV)

This is just one reason, the genetic reason, why Jesus is called the redeemer: He retains every element of the creation in Him, including our DNA, and He has the power and authority to restore all things to their perfect condition at any time.

John 1:3 All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.

John 1:4 In him was life; . . .

In conclusion, our DNA as it exists now, was “in Christ” before the creation, spoken into existence on day 6. Then, after God’s rest, it was activated in the form of Adam; at this point human DNA was “very good.” Unfortunately, Adam sinned and his DNA became polluted, destined to death; and, since we all came from Adam, our DNA is also polluted. However, the good copy still exists in Christ where it is safe, and we have access to it when we are also “in Christ.” This is the Gospel from a DNA perspective.


Here are some other links with some additional background information:

Adam’s DNA

Genesis Chapter 1 and 2

Jesus’ DNA

The Genetics of Sin Nature


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Key words: Gospel genetics, eternal life DNA, Gospel according to DNA, In Christ, genetic mutations

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Whom Did Cain Marry?

cainwifeDid Cain marry his sister or did he search-out and find a woman from elsewhere? Here is what the Bible says:

And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, . . . (Genesis 4:16-17 KJV)

So, by these scriptures, it is not obvious whom Cain married and from where his wife came; However, if we look at Genesis 3:20, the Bible makes it plain and simple:

And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. (Gen 3:20 KJV)

Therefore, Eve was the mother of all humanity and there were no human beings past, present, or future apart from Adam and Eve. The scriptures are clear, Eve was the mother of both Cain and Cain’s wife, his sister.

This state of affairs poses several questions that must be addressed:

(1) What about birth defects due to the close relationship of Cain and his sister?

(2) What about the Biblical and social morality laws prohibiting close relationship marriages? and,

(3) Is there any scientific evidence that either supports or contradicts the Bible concerning Eve being the mother of us all?

First, let’s start with the birth defects issue (question 1). It is a fact that when close relatives marry, their children have an increased probability of having birth defects, disease, and even early death. The theme of the Bible is that in the beginning, everything was “very good” (Genesis 1:31), and due to sin, there has been a deterioration of everything (Genesis 3:17). In the beginning, there were no genetic problems, then, after the original sin, genetic mutations started to appear and have continued to increase. So, when Adam and Eve’s children married one another, these mutations were not yet a significant problem. Actually even at the time of Abraham, some 2000 years after the creation, marrying a close relative was not a problem, and sometimes even encouraged by God (Genesis 17:19; Genesis 24:1-60; Genesis 28:10-15). Abraham married his half sister (Genesis 20:12); Isaac married his second cousin (Genesis 24:15); and Jacob married two of his first cousins (Genesis 28:1-7). It wasn’t until the time of Moses (about 2500 years after the creation) that God prohibited marrying close relatives (Leviticus 18:8-18). This was necessary to protect humanity from genetic mutations which had reached levels of concern. This notion that genetic mutations are increasing can be substantiated by the decline in lifespan from Adam who lived 930 years (Genesis 5:5), the lifespan of Moses who lived 120 years (Deuteronomy 34:7), and the present day lifespan which is approximately 67 years world-wide. Also, modern science has accepted the fact that genetic mutations are on the increase.

The next issue (question 2) concerns incest and the laws associated with it. Did God force the offspring of Adam and Eve to break the laws concerning incest? No, when Adam and Eve’s children married one another, there were no laws, Biblical or social, concerning incest. Also, remember, Adam and Eve were closer than siblings, they were identical twins (Genesis 2:21-23) except that Adam was a male (X and Y chromosome) and Eve was a female (two copies of the X chromosome). So, Adam and Eve’s children had no knowledge of or concerns about incest.

And lastly (question 3), concerning the existence of scientific evidence that either supports or contradicts Genesis 3:20, actually, there is much DNA evidence that strongly supports Genesis 3:20. DNA has been collected from humans around the globe over the past couple of decades: tens of thousands of DNA sequences. Geneticists, both secular and creationist, have used these sequences to compile a human genetic tree. This tree clearly shows that we all came from one woman. So, if any other, unrelated group of humans existed during, before or after Eve, there would necessarily be two or more family trees; but, there are not two or more, there is just one.

In conclusion, based on both Genesis and genetics, Cain married his sister.

Here are some other links with some additional background information:

Adam’s DNA
Genesis Chapter 1 and 2
Jesus’ DNA
The Genetics of Sin Nature


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Key words: genetics, DNA, Cain, marriage, sin, mutations, incest, close relationship marriages

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Where Does Neanderthal Fit in the Bible ?

http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-silhouette-various-people-various-positions-businessmen-image64824952The Bible is clear: shortly after the creation, man sinned and became extremely wicked, so wicked that God was sorry He had made man. Then, God caused a great flood, destroying all mankind with the exception of Noah and his family. We are not sure how many souls died in this global flood, but suspect that it was many. A common question is, why is there no fossil evidence of those killed in the flood? There is fossil evidence of dinosaurs, mammoths, fish, vegetation, mosquitoes, and even raindrops, so why not evidence of the humans who died in the flood ? The answer to this question is simple and right before us: there is fossil evidence of humans dying in the flood; these humans are what are presently referred to as Neanderthal man; Neanderthal man meets the Biblical criteria for those who died in the flood very nicely.

There is no question that Neanderthal man lived on earth. Many partial skeletons have been found which have provided the scientific community with credible DNA sequences. These sequences reveal a small, but distinct genetic difference between the Neanderthal and modern man; this difference is approximately 1.3 percent in the mitochondrial DNA. If we examine the scriptures in Genesis and join them with the fossil and DNA evidence, we can explain this distinct genetic difference between Neanderthal and modern man.

Looking at the Biblical account of the flood, we find that there were sudden major changes to the environment and ecosystems. The entire earth was flooded which resulted in a change to the atmosphere which, in turn, resulted in a new ecosystem, no longer able to support huge dinosaurs with small nostrils and dragonflies with over 2 foot wingspans. Also, concerning humans, we know they lived much shorter lives after the flood as clearly documented in Genesis chapter 11. And, at the disembarkation from the Ark, God announced that He would allow the eating of meat. All of this leads us to realize that these significant changes would require a genetic reset of DNA. This genetic reset, which was executed by God, Himself, explains the distinct genetic differences between modern man and those before the flood, whom we have concluded are Neanderthals. Neanderthal fossils reveal that Neanderthal had larger brains than modern man, better bone structure, stronger teeth, better bites (occlusion), fewer genetic mutations (disease), and longer lifespan. For references and Neanderthal DNA sequences, see Neanderthal’s Identity.

Accepting Neanderthal man as those living before the flood solves many mysteries such as the following: 

  1. How did Neanderthal go extinct?

Answer: He died in the flood.

  1. Why is there no evidence of pre-flood man?

Answer: There is much evidence of pre-flood man – Neanderthal.

  1. Why is Neanderthal genetically distinct from modern man?

Answer: Neanderthal had only the first genetic reset, but Modern man had both the first and second genetic reset. See the technical paper Neanderthal’s Identity for details.

  1. Why do we have his (Neanderthal’s) genetic mutations, but he doesn’t have ours (modern man)?

Answer: He is our ancestor. Our mutations were developed after the flood, so we have both Neanderthal and modern mutations; he has only the pre-flood mutations.

  1. Why did Neanderthal not interbreed with modern man?

Answer: He couldn’t; Neanderthal and modern man were separated by the flood.

  1. Why are Neanderthal’s remains found in so many diverse locations?

Answer: The flood deposited them there.

  1. Why is Neanderthal physiologically and anatomically superior?

Answer: His DNA was closer to Adam’s.

  1. Where does Neanderthal fit in post-flood Bible genealogy?

Answer: He doesn’t. We know the DNA from the table of nations people (Genesis Chapter 10) and subsequent generations; none has the Neanderthal genetic signature.

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The Genetics of Sin Nature

The Bible talks about our “sinful nature,” “the flesh,” and “carnal man” all of which refer to an attribute found in all humans: a propensity to sin. So the question is: Is this propensity to sin in our DNA? The answer is yes, sin nature is hardwired in us and in our DNA. We are not forced to sin, but we have the tendency to sin. This is not a God given tendency, but rather a result of Adam eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden some 6000 years ago.

ducklings_smallLet’s start with some basic logic: consider a baby duck, a duckling. It knows how to break out of the egg, how to walk on two legs, how to swim, how to eat by itself, and how to peep, all immediately after hatching. These are what are referred to as instincts; they are hardwired into the duckling through DNA and are not acquired through learning. We know this because all ducklings have these instincts no matter if hatched by the hen or hatched in an incubator. Later in life the duckling will learn where to find water, where he is safe, and where the best feeding spots are. So, the mature duck has some behavior that is hardwired and some that is learned.

The hardwired memory in the brain is passed on from generation to generation through DNA; the learned memory is not. We do not know which sequences of the DNA store these instincts since our understanding of DNA is still very limited. However, if you take a duck egg shortly after it is laid and crack it open, look at it and know that something in it contains the instructions to generate duck instincts. Logically, it has to be the DNA code which contains all the information to build a duck and prepare him for survival. Without these instincts being transfered throught the DNA from generation to generation, the duckling would not even hatch.

So how about humans? Human infants also have hardwired instincts such as desire to suckle, the tendency to put everything in their mouths, communication through crying, etc. Later, these infants learn the danger of falling, what pleases others, tasty foods, language, and many other things. So, like the duckling, the human infant is born with some hardwired memory and then later supplements this hardwired memory with learned memory. The hardwired  memory, or instincts, of humans includes the sin nature. This sin nature is apparent in all children and especially evident when they start to talk.

After God finished the creation, He proclaimed that the entire creation was “very good,” and this included man’s hardwired memory, or basic human instincts. Then came the serpent who injected something (the first GMO – genetically modified organism) into man using the forbidden fruit; this fruit changed man’s DNA, man now had the “sinful nature;” he was “carnal” and driven by his “flesh.” We know that it happened quickly because Adam and Eve, immediately after committing the original sin, hid from God; they were afraid of Him and ashamed of their nakedness (Genesis 3: 9-11). This fear and shame could not have been learned in that no events occurred that would have caused them to “learn” to fear God or be ashamed.

Our hardwired, instinctive sin nature is part of our DNA and we have to deal with it. Paul struggled with his sin nature and expressed his frustrations in the book of Romans:

Romans 7:19  For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing.

Romans 7:20  Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me.

Romans 7:21  So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. (ESV)

Once the sin nature is understood, it becomes evident why it is so important for parents to teach their children right from wrong. It is the “learned” portion of the brain that can combat the hardwired sin nature.

However, the only permanent solution for dealing with the sin nature is to get rid of it; and, we have the hope that someday, soon, our sin nature will be removed; and, it will; the trumpets will blow, the dead in Christ will meet us in the air and we will be changed: our sin nature will be gone; we will get our good, pure, original DNA and we will be free. We will be redeemed.

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