Adam’s Complexion and Hair Color

Recent genetic discoveries coupled with Scriptures lead us to an intriguing possibility: Adam had red hair and a ruddy, or rosy, complexion. This notion is based on the following three pieces of evidence:

Adam_red(3)

(1) The name Adam means “red.”

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

(1) The name “Adam” means “red.” Look it up in any dictionary in any language and it means “red.” It comes from the Hebrew word “adam” which means “red” (Strong’s ref H119, H120). So, why would God call the first human “red?” I have known several people in my life who were called “red,” and they all had red hair and rosy complexions. We also know that the Bible proclaims that the life of the flesh is in the blood (Leviticus 17:11). Adam was formed out of the dust of the ground (also from the Hebrew H119 meaning redness), received the breath of life, and became a living soul (Genesis 2:7). The blood is arguably the center piece of creation: it gives us life and is the source of redemption (Hebrews 9:12). If Adam was, in fact, rosy, his complexion would display this center piece of the creation – the blood.

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere. The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently.(Ref 1) This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans. It is known that rosy complexioned people are very efficient at producing vitamin D from sunlight. It follows that the complexion of those who occupied the Earth before the flood were various shades of “rosy” in order to optimize vitamin D production. Then, the darker shades of skin pigment were activated after the flood to accommodate the new ecosystem. Had the darker skin pigments been activated before the flood, there could have been problems with inadequate production of vitamin D which typically result in rickets, bone deformities, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, asthma, cancer, and/or physiological problems. These ailments would not be consistent the Creators proclamation that the entire creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31) in the beginning.

(Technical note: Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in more protective ozone layer.)

In the beginning, God gave the command, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth.” We can be confident that He also gave man the genetics to provide the optimum skin and hair color to fulfill this charge. Then, after the flood, when Noah disembarked from the Ark, God again gave the decree to “fill the earth.” Again, with this decree, we can be assured that the Creator activated the proper DNA, optimizing skin pigment variation. If one looks at the present distribution of skin pigmentation on the globe, it is obvious the darker skin colors inhabit the equatorial regions and the lighter skin colors occupy the more northern and southern latitudes.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

We at Genesis and Genetics have concluded that Neanderthal is, in fact, antediluvian man (i.e. pre-flood man) (Ref 2). If we are correct, Neanderthal is the key to understanding Adam and our roots. Two Neanderthals have been sequenced for the Mc1R gene (this gene is known to determine rate and type of pigment production thereby determining hair color and skin color). The two Neanderthals had the Val92Met (Ref 3) and Arg307Gly (Ref 4) variations of this gene, both of which are known to produce red hair and rosy complexions. It is important to point out that one Neanderthal fossil was found in Italy and the other found in Spain, leading us to suppose they were not closely related. It is not known whether these variations in Neanderthals are dominant or recessive; it is also not know if the Neanderthals had one or two copies of these variations. Therefore, we must wait to know how much variation in hair color and complexion the Neanderthals had. Today, approximately one percent of the world population has red hair. So, if Neanderthals had the same mix, the probability of testing one Neanderthal and finding it had red hair would be 1 in 100. The probability of finding two unrelated ruddy Neanderthals would be 1 in 10,000. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider that a greater percentage of Neanderthals had red hair and rosy complexions than modern humans and they inherited them from Adam.

Neanderthals have been of keen interest among anthropologists for many years. There are many Neanderthal fossils and DNA sequences which have inspired scientists to make replicas based on the best evidence. These replicas of Neanderthal generally have red hair and rosy complexions.

Summary

Adam’s hair color and skin complexion have been a great mystery, but we are getting closer to the answer. Based on the Biblical meaning of the name “Adam”, the knowledge of the early atmosphere characteristics, and the consideration that Neanderthal is Adam’s close offspring, we at Genesis and Genetics are persuaded that Adam had red hair and a rosy complexion.

References:
(1) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/08/110808-ancient-insects-bugs-giants-oxygen-animals-science/
(2) http://www.genesisandgenetics.org/2013/11/08/177/

(3) Qiliang Ding, Ya Hu, Shuhua Xu, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li, Ruyue Zhang, Shi Yan, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin; Neanderthal Origin of the Haplotypes Carrying the Functional Variant Val92Met in theMC1R in Modern Humans. Mol Biol Evol 2014; 31 (8): 1994-2003. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu180

(4) A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying, Science 318, 1453 (2007);Carles Lalueza-Fox, et al., Pigmentation Among Neanderthals DOI: 10.1126/science.1147417

 

Suggested additional reading:

Where does Neanderthal fit in the Bible?

Neanderthal and his Biblical Identity? – Genesis and Genetics

Keywords: Adam complexion, Adam’s skin color, Adam hair color, Neanderthal hair color, Neanderthal complexion, antediluvian complexion, antediluvian hair color, Adam skin color

 

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Junk DNA and the Bible


Our DNA has been polluted by the presence of sin in this world and in our lives; however, our DNA is robust and will serve us until the resurrection.

Since the discovery of DNA, there has been much talk about “junk DNA.” Initially, “junk DNA” was publicized as comprising at least 98 % of human DNA. Researchers didn’t pay much attention to it and considered it a waste of time researching “junk.” However, with the recent findings of the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) (1) project, the term “junk DNA ” has lost its momentum. Much of the supposed “junk DNA” has been found to be vital for life. The latest estimate is at most 20%. (2) And, this 20% is not necessarily considered to be junk but rather DNA that is not “well understood.” (3)

So, how does this concept of “junk DNA” fit into the Bible. First of all, we, at Genesis and Genetics, have a problem with the use of the term “junk DNA.” The word junk implies that something is old, discarded and no longer useful. We do not accept any tenets of evolution, so we do not accept the implication that any DNA has been discarded due to evolutionary processes. For us the term “junk DNA” should be replaced by the terms ” polluted DNA,” “redundant DNA,” and “inactive DNA.” The following details present our view on the human genome from a perspective of this “junk DNA” issue:

Polluted DNA It is a fact that we have genetic mutations; some cause disease and some cause deformation. There are some mutations updatemay52017 003_smallthat appear to have no affect on us, but they pollute the original divine work of the Creator. The Creator proclaimed that everything
was “very good” on day 6 of the creation (Genesis 1:31). Then, when Adam sinned, things went downhill (Romans 5:12). Now our “very good” DNA is subject to a sinful world filled with pollution and chaos. Our DNA did not escape and is now also polluted (Romans 5:21).

 

Redundant DNA Anyone who has spent much time on a computer knows how important it is to have more than one way of doing things and having more than one copy of files. The key idea here is redundancy. DNA mechanisms are quite redundant, and this redundancy is important for a robust design. Our DNA is in the form of a double helix: it contains two copies of everything required for life; there are multiple genes that can do the same task; and there are “cut and paste” genes (transposons) which provide backup copies at multiple locations. This redundancy allows us to endure the abovementioned polluted DNA, but continue to live. The human body is robust and wonderfully made:

Psalm 139:14  I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works . .

Inactive DNA We are all presently mortal due to Adam’s sin (Genesis 3:3). However, Jesus has promised us that we would be redeemed and our immortality would be restored. Someday soon Jesus will hit the “restore” button and those who are in Christ (Romans 8:2) will be like Him and our entire genome will be redeemed. Please read:

1 Corinthians 15:52  In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

1 Corinthians 15:53  For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

In summary, do we have junk DNA? No, but we do have redundant DNA, polluted DNA and inactive DNA. Our present DNA is robust and will serve us while we wait for our redemption.

Key words: junk DNA, Bible, junk DNA in the Bible, Bible junk DNA, would God make junk

References:

1. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/337/6099/1159

2. Doolittle WF. Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013;110(14):5294-5300. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221376110.

3. http://www.imm.ox.ac.uk/not-all-junk-dna-is-rubbish

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Time Machine – by Means of Genetics


The dream of many, maybe all, is to take a ride in a time machine. This has been the subject of many science fiction films and books. The mechanics of time machines ranges from jumping into a black hole, riding in a supercharged DeLorean, or harnessing quantum dreamstime_l_19077827physics. So far nothing appears to be feasible. 
However, we at Genesis and Genetics have discovered a sure-fire approach to travel through space and time by means of genetics, i.e. through our DNA. Time travel implies simultaneous space travel, so we use the term time/space travel.

Many backyard mechanics and distinguished scientist have worked on the notion of developing a time/space travel machine and got as far as putting it on the drawing board, but so far nothing is feasible. There are obstacles: pin-pointing the time and space destination; assuring the return; not being hit by a solid obstacle during the trip; and having to deal with the physiological needs during the trip. Due to these problems many have been discouraged and lost the vision. We have not.

Consider a true time machine where one can go in the past or in the future to any location and experience actual existence at that time and that place. I personally want to witness Adam and Eve in the Garden, Noah in the Ark, the Sumerians’ society, the tower of Babel, Joseph in Egypt, Moses crossing the Red Sea, Jeremiah in the well, Jesus at Galilee, my parents when they were young, etc. Surprisingly, this is absolutely doable through genetics.

Time travel is a scientific endeavor which means we should first consult the Holy Scriptures, the basis of all science. The first clue we get is that Jesus refers to himself as the “I am.”

Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. (John 8:58 KJV)

The implication from this scripture is that Jesus is in the present tense all the time. He is the “I am” now, in the past, and also in the future. Our existence is limited to the now. We can remember the past, but not exist in it. We can hope for the future, but cannot experience it until time allows us. This is not true for Jesus: He steps into the past, present, or future as He wills because it is all present tense for Him. Those who are students of the Bible are well aware of these tense interchanges in the scriptures. Here is one:

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. (Revelation 1:8 KJV)

This is interesting: Jesus is time, just like He is the way, the truth, the life, the light, the door, and the Word; He is also time. The scriptures attest to this; for instance, in Isaiah the past tense is used to proclaim that Jesus was wounded for our transgressions and bruised for our iniquities, this was written hundreds of years before Jesus’ crucifixion. The implication here is that it happened before it happened, or, in other words, the crucifixion is independent of time.

So what? Just because Jesus can do it, how can we do it? Here is where it gets interesting. Jesus proclaims Himself as our savior and offers us eternity with Him. He calls us “His body.” He compels us to be “in Christ.” Our DNA attests to our close connection to Him at the creation, now, and at His coming again. Therefore, if we are truly “in him:”

We will have access to His attributes and His capabilities – one of which is time/space travel.

So, when can we take our first ride? It is my opinion that we will not have the capability to travel in time/space until we get rid of our sin. Sin is stopping us from receiving many of the benefits of being “in Christ,” including time/space travel. Presently, only a small part of the time/space universe has been polluted by our sin, but if we could travel in time and space carrying our sin with us we could pollute the entire universe including the future. The future as prophesied is pristine with no pollution of sin, and we need to keep it that way. Also, if we could travel in the past, we could change it to suit our sinful nature in present and in the future. Therefore, we must be patient and wait until we are without sin and have received and realized the righteousness of Christ; our time will come, soon.

This next scripture puts it in perspective.

But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. (1 Corinthians 2:9)

In summary, being “in Christ” allows us access to the greatest and only time/space machine. It is our conclusion that Jesus loves to share His creation with us and will gladly allow us to travel in space and time. Please feel free to comment on your ideas of space/time travel.

Keywords: Space travel; time travel; space/time travel; time machine; Divine space travel; omnipresence; in Christ

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Divine Genetic Resets (Lifespan changes due to DNA – in the Bible)

The Creator is actively involved in His Creation, and we have Biblical evidence that He has changed (reset) our human DNA at least twice in the past. Also, in the future, there will be at least one more DNA reset. Here are the central three DNA changes/resets:

Genetic Change/Reset 1 When Adam sinned in the Garden, he and all of humanity became mortal (Genesis 3:3, I Corinthians 15:21).

Genetic Change/Reset 2 Before the global flood, the earth was filled with violence (Genesis 6:11-12); so, after the flood, God changed our DNA to reduce human life span from 900 + years (Genesis 5) to what we have now (Genesis 11 and Psalm 90:10).

Genetic Change/Reset 3 Soon, our DNA will be redeemed and reset back to the immortal state (1 Corinthians 15:52 and The Gospel according to DNA).

So, how does God change/reset the DNA? Remember, He spoke all things into existence by means of His Word, and, therefore, the entire creation is responsive to His Word.
DNA, in particular, is noticeably a language with letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs. Francis Collins, the director of the human genome project wrote a book titled “DNA The Langcell-iiuage of God” (Ref 1).

Voice control is now a big part of our modern daily lives. Consider the voice control abilities we now have with our computers and cell phones: our voices can do many things: we speak and our computers and cell phones respond. Also, genetic engineering is now common place and could easily be coupled to a computer or cell phone. So, if we can do it, it should be of no surprise that God can and did do it.

Voice control is not new to us, but not new to the scriptures, it is documented throughout the Bible. Here are a few examples of divine voice control:

  • The Creator said, “let there be light” (Genesis 1:3) and there was light;
  • The Creator said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures..” (Genesis 1:24) and they came forth;
  • The Creator said, “Let us make man in our image.. (Genesis 1:26) and we were made in His image;
  • Jesus said to the waves, Quiet! Be still!” (Mark 4:39) and the wind died and the waves calmed;
  • Jesus called out in a loud voice to the dead, rotting body of Lazarus, “Come Out” (John 11:43) and Lazarus came out of his grave, alive;
  • Jesus said to the fig tree “Let no fruit grow on thee..”, and the fig tree “withered away.” (Matthew 21:19) ; and
  • He speaks the future into existence, e.g., “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.” (Isaiah 11:6). 

It is well known that our genetics affect our life span, and mitochondrial DNA is of particularly interest in that it regulates muscle tone and energy. Therefore, the divine genetic changes should be seen in our mitochondrial DNA, and they are. We, at Genesis and Genetics maintain that Neanderthal man is actually antediluvian (pre-flood) man (Ref 2).
We know that antediluvian man lived typically over 900 years (Genesis 5) and that modern man lives approximately of 70 years (Ref 3).

 

Neanderthal man is separated from modern man by typically 210 differences in the mitochondrial DNA. These differences, in our opinion, are evidence of the second genetic change/reset and resulting lifespan change. As more and more Neanderthal DNA sequences become available, scientists are finding that many of the Neanderthal genes are superior to ours. This is the subject of a forthcoming technical paper from Genesis and Genetics.

The Creator has used and continues to use voice commands to control His creation and this includes our DNA. He has changed our genetics at least twice so far, and promised at least one more.

 

Keywords: Ages in the Bible, Antediluvian man, Neanderthal in the Bible, DNA and Antediluvian man, God’s voice control, and Biblical lifespan.

 

References:

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Collins

2. Genesis and Genetics (2011). Neanderthal and His Biblical Identity, http://www.genesisandgenetics.org/Neanderthal_Identity.pdf

3. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (29 July 2015). https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/files/key_findings_wpp_2015.pdf

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How Many Animals were on Noah’s Ark According to DNA (Or, The Genetic Distinction of Kinds)

owl_credit

One lingering mystery concerning Noah’s ark is: How many animals were on board? Since DNA has a very good reputation for solving mysteries in the courtroom, now it’s time to unleash its powers and reveal Noah’s passenger list.

As we look about the earth we see a multitude of animals reproducing after their kind, each retaining their distinction as a kind/specie. How does this happen? Two things are required for kinds/species to remain distinct:

(1) They must have the desire (instincts coded in their DNA) to mate with their own kind/species and

(2) They must have the ability (compatible DNA) to produce viable offspring like themselves.

These two requirements are the basis for both the Biblical and secular scientific definition of species/kinds. The words species and kinds are synonyms, but usually “species” is used by the secular scientific community and “kinds” is used by the Biblical community. Nonetheless, both words should define the same creatures, and our conclusion is that they do. Our position is as follows:

Fundamentally, all of the species currently defined by modern science were on the Ark

Consider humans, we have the desire and ability to produce more humans like ourselves. We know that we cannot produce a pig or a chimpanzee because we do not have the genetic ability in our DNA
to do so.

Next, consider the great horned owls, they desire to mate with other great horned owls and they have the ability to produce other great horned owls. However, their DNA does not produce the desire or the ability to create a bluebird, a barn owl, or even an eagle owl which is the same genus as the great horned owl.

We wrote a technical paper, The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls, and Doves, and found that not one of the owl kinds/species we examined could possibly produce any other owl kinds/species. That is also true for the ravens and doves. They differ from one another by too much genetic information. We also wrote a technical paper, A Study of Biblical Kinds Using 62 Species of Mice; which showed the various species/kinds of mouse DNA differed from one another by significant amounts with distinct DNA gaps between the kinds/species. It would be impossible to bridge these gaps by means of any natural process.

Our study of the mouse was very interesting in that we found that there are more than one hundredmouse_credit
mouse kinds/species and they all remain distinct. How do they do it? They have been magnificently designed with the desire and ability to reproduce after their kinds. Here are a few facts: They can read each other’s genetics like a barcode
(Ref 1). They mate only with their own species (Ref 2). They don’t breed with close relatives (Ref 3) and the males do not mate with under aged females (Ref 4). All of this is coded in the DNA and not only does it preserve their distinctiveness, but also maintains good genetic health. You may read all about it, get all of the references, and gain access to all of the DNA sequences at: A Study of Biblical Kinds Using 62 Species of Mice.

If only a few kinds would have been on the Ark, there would only be a few kinds now. The scriptures are clear: “every” kind was created (Genesis 1); “every” kind was loaded on the Ark (Genesis 6:19-20); and “every” kind disembarked from the Ark (Genesis 8:17-20). The kinds were distinct and remain distinct.

Our conclusion would necessitate that on the order of 6000 amphibian, 10,000 bird, 6,000 mammal, and 8,000 reptile kinds/species were aboard the Ark. Accounting for pairs, sevens of clean animals, and those that have gone extinct since the flood, the total number aboard the Ark would be on the order of 100,000. This would be no problem for the very large Ark with all of the animals in Biblical “deep sleep” (Ref 5)

As we look at this glorious creation, we see that the kinds are distinct. They are distinct because they have both the desire and ability to mate with their own kind and produce offspring of like kind. God always does things right, and in order to replenish the earth properly, He gave every kind a berth on the Ark. All of the passengers were peacefully asleep being transported to a new world filled with adventure and hope.

Key words:

Animals of the Ark, Species on the Ark, Kinds on the Ark, Noah’s Ark, Noah’s Ark, species vs. kinds, and DNA Noah’s Ark

Additional Suggested Reading:

Noah’s Ark A Fresh Look

Noah’s Ark Hermetically Sealed and Safe

References:

1. Beynon, R.J. and Hurst, J.L., 2003. Multiple roles of major urinary proteins in the house mouse, Mus domesticus., Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Feb;31(Pt 1):142-6. PMID:12546672.

2. Lane, R.P., Young, J., Newman, T., and Trask, B.J., 2004. Species specificity in rodent pheromone receptor repertoires. Genome Res. 14: 603-608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

3. Sherborne, A.L., Michael D., Thom, M.D., Paterson, S., Jury, F., Ollier, W.E.R., Stockley, P., Beynon, R.J. and Hurst, J.L., 2007. The Genetic Basis of Inbreeding Avoidance in House Mice, Current Biology 17, 2061–2066, December 4, 2007.

4. Ferrero, D.M., Moeller, L.M., Osakada T., Horio, N., Li, Q., Dheeraj S.R., Cichy, A., Spehr, M. Touhara, K. Liberles, S.D., 2013. A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system.
Nature, 2013; DOI:
10.1038/nature12579

5. http://www.genesisandgenetics.org/2013/07/20/122/

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Science and the Bible


There are many people in the scientific community that are in conflict with themselves; the conflict is between their religious beliefs and their connection with modern science. Then, there are parents that are at a loss to explain the differences between the Biblical teaching and what their children are being taught in school. If either of these describes your situation, this blog can be of help to you.

Consider going back in time and having an experienced group of scientists examine the creation just after its completion; they will examine Adam (the first human), a tree, a rock, and a star.

http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-silhouette-various-people-various-positions-businessmen-image64824952First, our scientists observe Adam just a few days after his creation, they  observe that Adam was a certain height, weight and had the physical characteristics of an adult. These observations would be correct and irrefutable, and these observations would be in tune with Bible in that Adam, just days after the beginning, had all the characteristics of an adult. However, if the scientists conclude that Adam had been alive for say 20-30 years, this interpretation of the observations would be wrong since Adam had been alive for just a few days. Adam is unique: he was not born; he was formed (out of dust).

There is an old rhetorical question, “what came first the chicken or the egg?” Actually, this question is not rhetorical and does have an answer; the answer is: the chicken came first. The Bible is clear; all things were created mature and fully operational in the beginning. This applies to both the chicken and Adam.

Now, let’s look at one tree the week after creation. The scientists take a bore sample and analyze the tree rings. They

Tree Rings_small observe the number of tree rings, the sulfur dioxide levels, the carbon 14 ratios, and growth rate for the years recorded by the tree rings. So, again the observations i.e., number of rings, carbon 14 levels, sulfur dioxide levels, and rings widths are irrefutable; they can be measured and are in tune with the Biblical theme of a mature creation. The disagreement begins if an age is assigned to the tree.  The tree is less than one week old (Genesis 1:12 and 13), but mature. The trees had to be created as mature in order to fulfill their role in our complex ecosystem: providing food, oxygen, and their other important functions.

Rock_in_woodsNext, our scientists identify a rock as a certain type of rock and take the rock to the lab; at the lab, they perform potassium/argon isotope dating and determine that the rock is billions of years old; however, the rock is, in fact, just a few days old. God created it during the first 6 days and created it so it could provide the necessary mass, minerals and isotopes required for a fully balanced, mature Earth.

Then our scientists look at the heavens and see a star through the
telescope. They classify it and determine its mass, red shift, and other interesting details Nasa_Starsincluding apparent age of several billion years; however, it too is just days old. The Bible says that the heavens proclaim the glory of God (Psalm 19:1). If God had to start the heavens with just space dust, it wouldn’t proclaim His glory and majesty. The Bible states that He stretched out the heavens in one day (Genesis 1:14-19, Isaiah 42:5) to fully display His glory with mature stars, planets, nebulae, comets and galaxies.


Does this all mean that God is deceitful? Absolutely not! His Word, the Bible, states clearly that the creation was completed in just six days, and everything was functional and mature.  The creation is complex to the extreme and everything was created at once, stable, in balance, and, above all – ready to use. If you want a house, you don’t want to wait 25 years before it is ready to occupy; you want to move in as soon as possible. If you buy a car, you don’t want to wait 10 years for it to be built; you want it immediately so you can drive it.

This attribute of the creation, i.e., mature from the beginning, poses an interesting question: what model did God use for the recorded history prior to the beginning? For example, in the tree rings, what history was recorded? We don’t know; however, we can offer several possibilities:

(1) God is an infinite God, and His existence is from everlasting to everlasting (Psalm 90:2). Therefore, maybe, history also has no beginning and no end and is transferable from one reality to another;

(2) Genesis chapter 1 states that things were “created after their kind,” and this may also be true of history, maybe it was created after its kind; and

(3) Time may be multi-directional, and the time recorded in the tree rings may be the future had sin not occurred .

These ideas, and others, can be good for discussion. Please comment if you have ideas you would like to share.

Dear friends and children remember these examples: the man, the tree, the rock, and the star; they were all created to be mature and perform their role in this magnificent, divine creation.

 

 

Suggested Additional Reading:

Adam’s DNA

Adam’s Rib

Genesis Chapter 1 and 2

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Noah’s Drunkenness, Ham, and the Curse of Canaan: Mystery Solved? And Who was Noah’s Wife?

Many verses in the Bible are mysteries just waiting to be unraveled. The happenings after the flood harbor one of these grand mysteries: after disembarkation from the Ark, Noah planted a vineyard, and when grapes were produced, he made wine, got drunk, and passed out in his tent; then his son Ham walked in on him (Noah) and something happened that resulted in the birth of Canaan. The name “Canaan” means “humiliated” and is our first clue in solving this mystery. After the happenings in the tent, Noah cursed Canaan: He didn’t curse Ham nor did he curse himself, but he cursed Canaan, and at the root of this mystery is the question – why?

For us, at Genesis and Genetics, this event is important because it can help us on our quest to understand the genetic details of human migration. After merging our understanding of the genetics of sin nature and the early chapters of Genesis, we believe we now understand the mystery of Noah’s drunkenness, Ham’s actions, and Noah’s curse on Canaan. The key to unraveling the mystery is recognizing the identity of Noah’s wife. First, please allow us to state our theory, and then we will defend it:


wifeNThe sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair and took them as wives (Genesis 6:2), and Noah was one of these “sons of God” and the “daughter of man” that Noah took for a wife was named Naamah from the line of Cain. Then, after the flood, when Noah got drunk, Noah’s son, Ham, had sex with his mother, Naamah, who, as a result of this union, bore a son named Canaan. Noah knew how this would affect the balance of good and evil, and cursed the unborn child. After Babel, Noah and his wife split up due to the humiliation; she went with Canaan, and Noah went with Shem and his offspring.

There is much evidence to promote the above notion, and if true, it explains this grand mystery and helps us understand our roots.

First, we need to look at the genealogy of Noah and Naamah. Genesis chapter 4 gives us the genealogy of Cain which ends with a woman named Naamah. Genesis chapter 5 gives us the genealogy of Seth which ends with Noah.

Adam

Cain                   Seth

                         

Naamah                Noah

 

We know that Noah was on the Ark, so, it only makes sense that Naamah was also on the Ark as Noah’s wife. If Naamah were not on the Ark, there would be no reason to document her family line since they would have perished in the flood. The Bible does not waste words and every verse is significant. In this case, Cain’s lineage is very significant in that he, Cain, contributed to our genetics significantly, on the order of half. Also, it should be noted that Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters (Genesis 5:4), the genealogy of which were not documented: there was no need – they and their offspring perished in the flood.

We, at Genesis and Genetics, are convinced that Naamah was, indeed, Noah’s wife. Here is our reasoning:

(a)  She is the last one mentioned in the line of Cain before the flood.

(b)  Generally, in Biblical lineages, only the men are listed. In the case of Naamah, not only is she listed but also, her father and mother are included. This implies that she is a very important person in our family tree.

(c)  Some Jewish traditions cite Naamah as Noah’s wife  (Reference)

(d)  There was a town in Canaan conquered by Joshua named Naamah. Biblical towns are generally named after the men, but this one was named after a woman: Naamah.

Noah planted a vineyard and got drunk. Then, Ham, Noah’s son, committed some act that resulted in a curse placed on Canaan. These happening have been heavily debated by theologians: some say Ham saw that Noah was naked; some say Ham committed a homosexual act with Noah; and some say it is and will remain an unsolved mystery; but there is another possibility that we have accepted. We have concluded that Ham went into the tent and had sex with his mother; this union produced Canaan. When Noah woke up, he cursed Canaan, Ham’s unborn son. Noah didn’t curse himself, nor did he curse Ham, but he cursed Canaan and gave him the name which means “humiliated.” This is the only scenario that makes sense and here are our reasons for promoting this view:

(a)  The term saw the “nakedness of his father” (Genesis 9:22) is the same term as used in the Levitical law when dealing with incest (e.g. Leviticus 20:11 “And the man that lieth with his father’s wife hath uncovered his father’s nakedness:” – KJV). This clearly means having sexual relations.

(b)  Noah knew that the result of this union would upset the balance of good and evil (1 John 3:12, Genesis 4:25).

The Biblical history of Noah ends when Noah curses Canaan (Genesis 9 25-29). However, we know that Noah lived 350 years after disembarkation from the Ark (Genesis 9:29). We are not sure how long Naamah lived after leaving the Ark, but assume she lived through the time of the scattering at Babel. Even though the scriptures don’t directly account for Noah’s and Naamah’s whereabouts, we can speculate that Noah was sufficiently humiliated so his relationship with Naamah cooled, possibly to the point of being estranged. Naamah, perhaps, was protective of her son Canaan and went with him after the Babel scattering and dwelt in the land of Canaan. Noah, on the other hand, perhaps, dwelt with his son Shem or someone in the Shem line. The supporting evidence for this is the account of Abraham and Job both of whom came from the line of Shem and had very deep spiritual understanding; this would be indicative of a close and extended connection with Noah.

So, how about those of us who have Canaanite genes? Unfortunately, we all have Canaanite genes. Since Canaan was born so early in the post-flood history, his DNA is thoroughly mixed into all of us. We all need redemption.

We are sure this blog will inspire diverse opinions and comments, and we welcome them.

Additional reading:

The Sons of God and the Daughters of Man

The Genetics of Sin Nature

Unraveling Babel – Date and Population

 

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Unraveling Babel – Date and Population


 

ziggurat_mod_smallAt Genesis and Genetics, we are currently working on human migration. In order to understand the migration, it is helpful to know the population and date of the scattering of humanity from Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). The genealogy presented in Genesis chapters 10 and 11 has allowed us to extract both the date and population at this pivotal event in the history of man.

 

We have concluded that the date was 116 ± 15 years after the flood and the population was approximately 126.

We know, for sure, that the scattering occurred before the time of Abraham since Abraham came from the land of Ur (Genesis 11:31, Genesis 12:1), and not Babel. From Table 1, we see that Abraham was born 292 years after the flood; therefore, we have a boundary time frame.

Table 1. Ten Generations (of Shem) after the Flood

Individual

Individual

Born

Age at First Childs birth

(Chapter 10)

(Chapter 11)

Years after Flood

Arphaxad Arphaxad

2

35

Shelah Shelah

37

30

Eber Eber

67

34

Peleg Peleg

101

30

Reu

131

32

Serug

163

30

Nahor

193

29

Terah

222

70

Abraham

292

80

Isaac

392

60

Note: figure 1 was compiled from Genesis chapters 10 and 11.

Now we can further refine the date by using Genesis chapter 10 which is called the “table of nations.” Chapter 10 documents those who were the founders of nations and were presumably at Babel. We know that Noah had three sons, Ham, Shem, and Japheth; and through these three sons the entire world was populated. Genesis chapter 10 ends with the following verse:

Genesis 10:32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood. (ESV)

Therefore, we can deduce that those not listed in the table of nations were born after the scattering. From Figure 1, we see that Peleg was born 101 years after the flood. Peleg was mentioned in the table of nations, but his son Rue was not mentioned, nor was any of Shem’s ancestry after Peleg. From figure 1, we see that Peleg was 30 years old when he begot Rue; therefore, the scattering had to happen during the first 30 years of Peleg’s life. This allows us to conclude that the scattering happened during the year 116 ± 15 years after the flood.

Now concerning the population at the time of the scattering, it is simply the table of nations population (the 62 men called by name in Genesis chapter 10 times two = 124) plus Noah and his wife (126). This assumes that there were equal numbers of men and women.

In summary, we can be assured that the dispersion at Babel happened before the birth of Abraham 292 years after the flood; and using Genesis chapter 10 as the documentation of the individuals at the time of the scattering, we conclude it happened 116 plus or minus 15 years after the flood, and the population was very close to 126. These are the numbers we will use for our forth coming human migration studies.

Additional points of interest:

(1) Noah lived 350 years after the flood, but his activities after the incident in the cave (Genesis 9:20-27) were not documented.

(2) Noah and Abraham coexisted on the earth for 58 years. Abraham’s birth was 292 years after the flood and Noah lived 350 after the flood (350-292=58).

(3) Noah was not included in Genesis chapter 10 (table of nations), so we are not sure with which family he dwelt. We feel there is a strong chance that Noah migrated with Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, or Peleg and knew Abraham very well teaching Abraham the things that he, Noah, had learned directly from God.

(4) There is also a good probability that Noah greatly influenced Job and his friends. This is a subject of a future blog.


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Noah’s Ark – Hermetically Sealed and Safe

In a previous blog (Noah’s Ark – A Fresh Look), we made the case for the notion that all the creatures on the Ark were in a Biblical “deep sleep.” As we continued our study of the Ark, we came across a very interesting couple of verses:

And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.
And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: (Genesis 8:5-6 KJV)

dreamstime_l_22493289_smallThese verses strongly imply that the one window (Genesis 6:16) on the Ark was closed during the voyage and not opened until near disembarkation (10 months + 40 days, i.e. approximately 340 days out of the approximate one year voyage of the Ark). Imagine tens of thousands of animals and eight humans living on the Ark with active metabolisms for nearly a year with the only window closed! Why wasn’t it open to get fresh air? So, knowing that the window was closed brings us to the likelihood that the Ark was hermetically sealed, i.e. no air/gases or liquids could enter or leave the Ark. Let us reason together and consider the possibility that the Ark was, in fact, hermetically sealed. Consider:

 

  1. The Bible states that the Ark was sealed inside and outside with pitch (Genesis 6:14). Sealing the Ark both outside and inside keeps air/gases or liquids from coming in or going out. The Hebrew word used for applying the pitch is “kaphar” which means to “cover,” the implication being that the Ark was completely covered, both above and below the water line, inside and out.
  2. During the flood, many creatures died outside the Ark causing health hazards such as gastroenteritis, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and cholera. These diseases could be transferred through the air, water, and/or insects. The passengers on the Ark would be vulnerable to these diseases and the result would be a colossal mess, if not death to all, unless the Ark were hermetically sealed.
  3. Having the Ark hermetically sealed would also sound proof the Ark. This creates a comforting mental image of the Ark in the center of the greatest catastrophic event of all time with the passengers resting in a Biblical “deep sleep” peaceably and quietly. Don’t forget that the name “Noah” in Hebrew (Noach) means “rest” and “quiet.”
  4. The obvious question is: how could all of those on the Ark survive without oxygen? The answer is that there was plenty of oxygen in the Ark; it just had to be recycled. This is not a problem for God; even we humans can do it in the space station; and, those in the space station are awake with active metabolisms.

Studying the events of the early days of humanity is fascinating. Someday we will be with the Lord and it will be all revealed; but, until then we can use the Bible and our relationship with the Teacher (Holy Spirit) to see how close we can get to the truth. We at Genesis and Genetics want to go on record as stating that we believe the Ark was hermetically sealed. We always reserve the right to be wrong, but this is our stance. Please let us know if you have any evidence that either supports or refutes this notion.



Suggested Additional Reading:


Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible


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The Sons of God and the Daughters of Man (and Giants)

In the book of Genesis, there is a very interesting scripture that states:


“… the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.” (Genesis 6:2)

This scripture is nestled in with other scriptures that talk about population increase, giants, great wickedness, and culminates with God confessing that He was broken hearted (Genesis 6:6); He was broken hearted to the point of being sorry He had made mankind (also Genesis 6:6). Here are the scriptures in context:

Genesis 6:1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
Genesis 6:2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
Genesis 6:3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Genesis 6:6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
Genesis 6:7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. (KJV)

What does all this mean? Let’s start by reviewing the early history of man: God created man (Adam) in God’s image and this creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31). Then, Adam sinned and became a mortal being, separated from God and destined to die. However, God was pleased with one of Adam’s sons, Abel, who was righteous; but, Cain, Adam’s other son, killed Abel. The Bible states that Abel’s works were righteous and Cain’s were evil (1 John 3:12). Then, God raised up Seth as a replacement for Abel (Genesis 4:25), and Seth was righteous like Abel. At this time, there was a separation of those from Cain and those from Seth (Genesis 4:16) until the sons of God (those from Seth) saw that the daughters of men (those from Cain) were fair and took them as wives; this resulted in an irreversible mixing of the righteous and unrighteous lines.

Concerning the giants i.e. Nephilim, there are some who believe that these giants were the result of angels taking the daughters of men as wives, supposing that the sons of God were angels. This notion originated in the book of Enoch which has been accepted as neither the Hebrew Holy Scriptures nor as Christian Bible Canon. Our conclusion is that this human-angel hybridization is contrary to both the scriptures and the genetic data. Here are our reasons:

(1) The scriptures (Genesis 6:4) clearly state that the giants existed before the sons of God took the daughters of men as wives.

. . . there were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came into the daughters of men.(Genesis 6:4)

(2) The scriptures are clear that angels don’t marry. The following are the words of Jesus:

Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. (Matthew 22:29-30; Words of Jesus in red)

(3) Humans have souls, i.e. flesh and blood, and angels do not.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)

Adam became a “living soul.” Angels are spirits and do not have flesh and blood. They can dwell in flesh and blood, but they do not have their own flesh and blood.

Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(Luc 24:39
– words of Jesus in red)

(4) We have much genetic data that has been collected over the last few decades and it shows that all human DNA can be traced to one woman and one man. Any foreign, non-human DNA would appear and be noticeable. In this case modern humans would have two origins of Y-chromosome DNA since the fathers of some would be angels and the fathers of other would be human. This is not the case.

(5) Here is another portion of scripture that speaks for itself:

Hebrews 1:4 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

Hebrews 1:5 For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?

The giants most probably had the genetic mutation which causes (gigantism, or acromegaly). Do a search on either of these words and you can read all about it. These early giants were probably the first evidence of genetic mutations and were called “Nephilim” which, in the original Hebrew, has the sense of giant, bully, and tyrant; so, they were large and took advantage of their size being bullies and tyrants, like Goliath.

Conclusion: This is an important part of human history, when the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair and took them as wives; it helps understand who we are and how we got to where we are. Also, the notion that sons of God were angels is, in our opinion, a myth.


Suggested Additional Reading:


Noah’s Wife and the Curse of Canaan

Noah’s Ark a Fresh Look

Where Does Neanderthal fit in the Bible


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search topics: Giants in the Bible; Sons of God; Nephilim; and human Biblical history

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