Category Archives: DNA

Epigenetics – Complexity of Biblical Proportions – Part 1

The discovery of DNA has greatly enhanced our understanding of life and its complexities. However, understanding DNA is just the beginning. DNA orchestration and expression are of mind blowing, Biblical, proportions of complexity. This orchestration is a field of study called epigenetics; a term coined in the 1940’s and currently one of the hottest topics of research. Epigenetics may very well be the most important scientific discovery of our generation.

Consider a nest of eggs. The DNA is fixed in the nucleus of each egg. After a month or so, the eggs will incubate and be transformed into chicks. These chicks all look alike, but no longer resemble the egg from which they came. Their DNA has not changed. Every cell in their body, in collaboration with every other cell, has expressed itself as this baby chick. After a few weeks they increase in size and grow bigger wings, their fuzz turns into feathers, and muscles become toned for flight. At each stage, the babies, in this case robins, all look alike; their DNA is expressed in like manner for each of the chicks; every cell is expressing itself differently, but in concert with every other cell, doing its part to produce a fledgling. Amazingly, the robin’s DNA does not change, but the robins do; they change a lot. They all grow at the same rate and fledge at the same time. Finally, we have mature birds, all approximately the same size and approximately the same physical appearance. The DNA is fixed from egg till death, but the expression of the robin’s DNA is changed drastically from one stage to another. Everything is performing with perfect orchestration and expression.

So, the question is, what mechanism produces this orchestration? It is explained by epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of how DNA is packed into the cell and with which chemicals it is packed. The result of this packing regulates which genes are expressed and to what extent. Each time a cell divides, it is subject to new packing arrangements. Each cell is different and each cell packs in concert with every other cell; each doing its part. This is a miracle. Every stage of growth and development is a miracle. An extreme example of epigenetics is the butterfly. During metamorphosis, the larva changes to a butterfly, totally different from the larva in appearance and metabolism. And, it happens very quickly. The cell divisions act in unison with all cells to regulate gene expression and produce what looks like a totally different creature even though the DNA remains fixed.

Epigenetics is a system of turning genes off and on. We humans have just over 20,000 genes in our body and each of these genes can be expressed or not depending on how tightly it is wound and with which chemicals it is packed. Therefore, with the butterfly, one combination of genes is expressed to build the larva and another combination of genes is expressed for constructing the mature butterfly. No matter how the DNA is packed, it cannot construct a moth, a bird, or a chimpanzee; it can only express the various stages of that species of butterfly.

Now let’s look at human epigenetics and make it a bit more personal. What regulates and orchestrates our DNA packing? The answer is, “our personal DNA coupled with our environment determines how our DNA is packed.” This environment includes: diet, air quality, stress, friends, attitude, purpose, and spiritual beliefs. The environment triggers receptors, switches, hormones, and electrical signals: these triggers affect how our DNA is expressed. In summary, not only does your DNA regulate gene expression, but so does our physical and spiritual environment. We have a blog (part 2 of this blog) that shows both the physical and spiritual effects of epigenetics using laboratory tests of mice and rats.

Now that we have given the basics, it is time to shock you with the complexity of epigenetics. Consider you. You looked different when you were a fetus and you looked different as a new born. Then came the toddler years and adolescent years. Every decade you look different. Each cell in your body must do its part in making you, you for each period of your life. Latest estimates are that a human body has 37.2 trillion cells. Each cell contains about 6 feet of DNA. Therefore, you have 6 X 37.2 = 223.2 trillion feet of DNA that must be orchestrated to make you, you. If we take this 223.2 trillion feet of DNA and divide by 5280 (feet in a mile) and take that and divide by the distance to the sun (93 million miles), we get 459.07. This is shocking! This means that if you stretch out your DNA, it is long enough to make approximately 230 round trips to the sun. This is complexity of Biblical proportions. Each of these 6-foot strands must do its part in the orchestration with all the other 37.2 trillion strands to produce you at any point in your life. Only divine intellect and ingenuity can explain complexity of this proportion.

Dear friends and children, if you believe the Bible you are doing well. The complexity of life is of Biblical proportions and cannot be explained by chaos. When we face the creator, we will be able to say, “we believed your Word, that you created all things.”

Where Does Neanderthal Fit in the Bible – Update

This blog presents several additional points to support the notion that Neanderthal is antediluvian man, i.e. those who lived before the Biblical flood. In 2012, we presented evidence, based on partial mitochondrial DNA sequences, that Neanderthal is indeed our direct, antediluvian ancestor 1. We now have more evidence that solidifies our position. When Neanderthal fossils were discovered in the mid 1800’s, Neanderthals were portrayed as ignorant ape men, but now with the advent of DNA sequencing, they are being portrayed quite differently. More and more they are being portrayed as fully human like us. They are seizing their rightful position in the history of man: our direct line ancestors, the sons and daughters of Adam who lived before the global flood. The following points should be considered in defense of our stance:

Human Speech

It has been found that the human variation of the FOXP2 gene is present in Neanderthal.2 This FOXP2 gene found in Neanderthal is identical to that of humans living today; this is significant in that FOXP2 plays a major role in human speech 3, separating us from the animal kingdom. This finding coupled with the fact that Neanderthals had brains larger than present-day humans4 could suggest that they were more articulate than we.

Genetic Similarity The present-day human and Neanderthal genomes appear to be at least 99.5% identical 5. This difference is statistically the same as some of the latest estimates of genetic differences within the present-day human genome (99.5%) 6. Clearly Neanderthal is fully human; however, since his DNA markers do not exactly align with any present-day family groups or any post-flood family groups, he must be placed as antediluvian man, our pre-flood ancestor. Note: these DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphism-snps) constitute only 0.3% of the human genome 7 and are useful in determining parentage.

Y-chromosome and mitochondrial sequences

To better understand how the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA supports our position, consider our version of the human family tree:

Figure 1. Human Family Tree

The family tree above shows that the roots of the tree represent the Neanderthals; the stump represents Noah and his family; and the branches and leaves represent us, the present day nations and family groups. The trunk of the tree represents the genetic reset performed by God during or just after the flood; this reset set in motion human DNA compatible with the new ecosystem and lifespan 11. Neanderthal fossils have been found in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Croatia, Russia, Siberia, Iraq, Israel, Belgium, and Uzbekistan. These Neanderthals are all offspring of Adam and Eve. The Neanderthals died in the flood with the exception of Noah and his family. Since the post flood ecosystem and human lifespan were much different than the original ecosystem and lifespan, God performed a genetic reset preparing humanity for the new environment and lifespan. One would expect that human DNA sequences prior to Noah and his family would be very similar, but not align exactly with any post-flood nation or family group. And they don’t.

A portion of Y-chromosome data has been extracted from Neanderthal fossils. As expected, these sequences do not align exactly with any modern man Y-chromosome nation or family group 8. If they did, one would conclude that Neanderthal was post-flood. But they do not, and, therefore, must be the root. This is a very significant finding for which we have been anxiously waiting. Now, we know that, like the mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosomal DNA shows that Neanderthals are fully human but are the roots of the tree, not the branches and leaves.

Also, now that we have the full mitochondrial sequences, we find that they, like the Y-chromosome sequences, support our original conclusions: Neanderthal is antediluvian man.

Ruddy/Rosy Complexion

We, at Genesis and Genetics, have concluded that Adam and Eve had red hair and rosy complexions. This conclusion was reached due to the fact that God gave Adam his name which means “red.” The accompanying rosy complexion is compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere. Just lately, using advanced sequencing tools, scientists have found that two Neanderthal fossils had genes for red hair and ruddy complexions 9. It is difficult to find Neanderthal DNA with these genes intact, so, as far as I know, these are the only two tested for red hair and rosy complexions. It is also, noteworthy that these Neanderthals came from two different locations: one from Spain and the other from Italy. Our model predicts that Neanderthal would, like Adam and Eve, require complexions compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere.


A recent excavation of a site in Belgium has added evidence to the existing view that Neanderthals were sometimes cannibals 10.  There are accounts of modern human acts of cannibalism; however, they overwhelmingly occur when humans are forced to choose between cannibalism and starvation. During the flood, the Bible implies that all humanity didn’t die at once, and some could have survived for many months in the water (Genesis 7:19-24). The Neanderthal, being very intelligent, would be in boats, on rafts, or clinging to the large floating mats of debris; but faced with starvation they may very well have resorted to cannibalism. The caves, being the flood drainage pipes, would and do harbor the evidence of this cannibalism.


Evidence continues to accumulate that Neanderthals were the offspring of Adam and Eve, and our pre-Noah ancestors. Our version of the human family tree is presented above; had it not been for Adam’s sin, it would look quite different; but Adam did sin and Noah found grace in the eyes of the Creator, thereby forming the bottle neck (family tree stump). Then God chose to make changes in human physiology, including  reduced lifespan, all of which required a genetic reset (the trunk of the family tree). Here is a summary of the additional evidence for our version of the family tree:

(1) Neanderthal has the FOXP2 gene identical to present-day humans indicating that they had human speech capabilities.

(2) Neanderthal DNA signature is incongruous with any modern nation or family group. This is true for both Mitochondrial DNA (inherited from the mother) and Y-Chromosome DNA (inherited from the father). The only placement available for Neanderthal on the family tree is the roots, our roots.

(3) Neanderthal fossils show evidence of cannibalism. Human cannibalism has a history of occurring primarily when there is some catastrophic event which deprives them of food.

(4) The Neanderthal DNA, so far tested, show evidence of red hair and ruddy complexions which would be compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere and the name God gave Adam.

(5) The similarities of the present-day human and Neanderthal DNA coupled the fact that they each have unique DNA markers, positions Neanderthal correctly in Biblical history as antediluvian man.

Note: Our former work and evidence can be found here for the blog and here for the technical paper


We will keep you posted as we find more evidence for our position. We do have more compelling evidence for our model which concerns Neanderthal and carbon dating. This will be published soon. You may subscribe here if you would like to be on our mailing list.


Keywords: antediluvian, pre-flood man, Neanderthal, Neanderthal’s place in human history, Biblical Neanderthal, Neanderthal Bible, Bible Neanderthal, Neanderthal in the Bible














Adam’s Complexion and Hair Color

Recent genetic discoveries coupled with Scriptures lead us to an intriguing possibility: Adam had red hair and a ruddy, or rosy, complexion. This notion is based on the following three pieces of evidence:


(1) The name Adam means “red.”

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

(1) The name “Adam” means “red.” Look it up in any dictionary in any language and it means “red.” It comes from the Hebrew word “adam” which means “red” (Strong’s ref H119, H120). So, why would God call the first human “red?” I have known several people in my life who were called “red,” and they all had red hair and rosy complexions. We also know that the Bible proclaims that the life of the flesh is in the blood (Leviticus 17:11). Adam was formed out of the dust of the ground (also from the Hebrew H119 meaning redness), received the breath of life, and became a living soul (Genesis 2:7). The blood is arguably the center piece of creation: it gives us life and is the source of redemption (Hebrews 9:12). If Adam was, in fact, rosy, his complexion would display this center piece of the creation – the blood.

(2) Adam’s complexion was tuned for the early atmosphere. The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently.(Ref 1) This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans. It is known that rosy complexioned people are very efficient at producing vitamin D from sunlight. It follows that the complexion of those who occupied the Earth before the flood were various shades of “rosy” in order to optimize vitamin D production. Then, the darker shades of skin pigment were activated after the flood to accommodate the new ecosystem. Had the darker skin pigments been activated before the flood, there could have been problems with inadequate production of vitamin D which typically result in rickets, bone deformities, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, asthma, cancer, and/or physiological problems. These ailments would not be consistent the Creators proclamation that the entire creation was “very good” (Genesis 1:31) in the beginning.

(Technical note: Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in more protective ozone layer.)

In the beginning, God gave the command, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth.” We can be confident that He also gave man the genetics to provide the optimum skin and hair color to fulfill this charge. Then, after the flood, when Noah disembarked from the Ark, God again gave the decree to “fill the earth.” Again, with this decree, we can be assured that the Creator activated the proper DNA, optimizing skin pigment variation. If one looks at the present distribution of skin pigmentation on the globe, it is obvious the darker skin colors inhabit the equatorial regions and the lighter skin colors occupy the more northern and southern latitudes.

(3) Neanderthal had a ruddy/rosy complexion.

We at Genesis and Genetics have concluded that Neanderthal is, in fact, antediluvian man (i.e. pre-flood man) (Ref 2). If we are correct, Neanderthal is the key to understanding Adam and our roots. Two Neanderthals have been sequenced for the Mc1R gene (this gene is known to determine rate and type of pigment production thereby determining hair color and skin color). The two Neanderthals had the Val92Met (Ref 3) and Arg307Gly (Ref 4) variations of this gene, both of which are known to produce red hair and rosy complexions. It is important to point out that one Neanderthal fossil was found in Italy and the other found in Spain, leading us to suppose they were not closely related. It is not known whether these variations in Neanderthals are dominant or recessive; it is also not know if the Neanderthals had one or two copies of these variations. Therefore, we must wait to know how much variation in hair color and complexion the Neanderthals had. Today, approximately one percent of the world population has red hair. So, if Neanderthals had the same mix, the probability of testing one Neanderthal and finding it had red hair would be 1 in 100. The probability of finding two unrelated ruddy Neanderthals would be 1 in 10,000. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider that a greater percentage of Neanderthals had red hair and rosy complexions than modern humans and they inherited them from Adam.

Neanderthals have been of keen interest among anthropologists for many years. There are many Neanderthal fossils and DNA sequences which have inspired scientists to make replicas based on the best evidence. These replicas of Neanderthal generally have red hair and rosy complexions.


Adam’s hair color and skin complexion have been a great mystery, but we are getting closer to the answer. Based on the Biblical meaning of the name “Adam”, the knowledge of the early atmosphere characteristics, and the consideration that Neanderthal is Adam’s close offspring, we at Genesis and Genetics are persuaded that Adam had red hair and a rosy complexion.


(3) Qiliang Ding, Ya Hu, Shuhua Xu, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li, Ruyue Zhang, Shi Yan, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin; Neanderthal Origin of the Haplotypes Carrying the Functional Variant Val92Met in theMC1R in Modern Humans. Mol Biol Evol 2014; 31 (8): 1994-2003. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu180

(4) A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying, Science 318, 1453 (2007);Carles Lalueza-Fox, et al., Pigmentation Among Neanderthals DOI: 10.1126/science.1147417


Suggested additional reading:

Where does Neanderthal fit in the Bible?

Neanderthal and his Biblical Identity? – Genesis and Genetics

Keywords: Adam complexion, Adam’s skin color, Adam hair color, Neanderthal hair color, Neanderthal complexion, antediluvian complexion, antediluvian hair color, Adam skin color


Junk DNA and the Bible

Our DNA has been polluted by the presence of sin in this world and in our lives; however, our DNA is robust and will serve us until the resurrection.

Since the discovery of DNA, there has been much talk about “junk DNA.” Initially, “junk DNA” was publicized as comprising at least 98 % of human DNA. Researchers didn’t pay much attention to it and considered it a waste of time researching “junk.” However, with the recent findings of the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) (1) project, the term “junk DNA ” has lost its momentum. Much of the supposed “junk DNA” has been found to be vital for life. The latest estimate of the amount of “junk DNA” is at most 20%. (2) And, this 20% is not necessarily considered to be junk but rather DNA that is not “well understood.” (3)

So, how does this concept of “junk DNA” fit into the Bible. First of all, we, at Genesis and Genetics, have a problem with the use of the term “junk DNA.” The word junk implies that something is old, discarded and no longer useful. We do not accept any tenets of evolution, so we do not accept the implication that any DNA has been discarded due to evolutionary processes. For us the term “junk DNA” should be replaced by the terms ” polluted DNA,” “redundant DNA,” and “inactive DNA.” The following details present our view on the human genome from a perspective of this “junk DNA” issue:

Polluted DNA It is a fact that we have genetic mutations; some cause disease and some cause deformation. There are some mutations updatemay52017 003_smallthat appear to have no affect on us, but they pollute the original divine work of the Creator. The Creator proclaimed that everything
was “very good” on day 6 of the creation (Genesis 1:31). Then, when Adam sinned, things went downhill (Romans 5:12). Now our “very good” DNA is subject to a sinful world filled with pollution and chaos. Our DNA did not escape and is now also polluted (Romans 5:21).


Redundant DNA Anyone who has spent much time on a computer knows how important it is to have more than one way of doing things and having more than one copy of files. The key idea here is redundancy. DNA mechanisms are quite redundant, and this redundancy is important for a robust design. Our DNA is in the form of a double helix: it contains two copies of everything required for life; there are multiple genes that can do the same task; and there are “cut and paste” genes (transposons) which provide backup copies at multiple locations. This redundancy allows us to endure the abovementioned polluted DNA, but continue to live. The human body is robust and wonderfully made:

Psalm 139:14  I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works . .

Inactive DNA We are all presently mortal due to Adam’s sin (Genesis 3:3). However, Jesus has promised us that we would be redeemed and our immortality would be restored. Someday soon Jesus will hit the “restore” button and those who are in Christ (Romans 8:2) will be like Him and our entire genome will be redeemed. Please read:

1 Corinthians 15:52  In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

1 Corinthians 15:53  For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

In summary, do we have junk DNA? No, but we do have redundant DNA, polluted DNA and inactive DNA. Our present DNA is robust and will serve us while we wait for our redemption.

Key words: junk DNA, Bible, junk DNA in the Bible, Bible junk DNA, would God make junk



2. Doolittle WF. Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013;110(14):5294-5300. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221376110.


Divine Genetic Resets (Lifespan changes due to DNA – in the Bible)

The Creator is actively involved in His Creation, and we have Biblical evidence that He has changed (reset) our human DNA at least twice in the past. Also, in the future, there will be at least one more DNA reset. Here are the central three DNA changes/resets:

Genetic Change/Reset 1 When Adam sinned in the Garden, he and all of humanity became mortal (Genesis 3:3, I Corinthians 15:21).

Genetic Change/Reset 2 Before the global flood, the earth was filled with violence (Genesis 6:11-12); so, after the flood, God changed our DNA to reduce human life span from 900 + years (Genesis 5) to what we have now (Genesis 11 and Psalm 90:10).

Genetic Change/Reset 3 Soon, our DNA will be redeemed and reset back to the immortal state (1 Corinthians 15:52 and The Gospel according to DNA).

So, how does God change/reset the DNA? Remember, He spoke all things into existence by means of His Word, and, therefore, the entire creation is responsive to His Word.
DNA, in particular, is noticeably a language with letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs. Francis Collins, the director of the human genome project wrote a book titled “DNA The Langcell-iiuage of God” (Ref 1).

Voice control is now a big part of our modern daily lives. Consider the voice control abilities we now have with our computers and cell phones: our voices can do many things: we speak and our computers and cell phones respond. Also, genetic engineering is now common place and could easily be coupled to a computer or cell phone. So, if we can do it, it should be of no surprise that God can and did do it.

Voice control is not new to us, but not new to the scriptures, it is documented throughout the Bible. Here are a few examples of divine voice control:

  • The Creator said, “let there be light” (Genesis 1:3) and there was light;
  • The Creator said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures..” (Genesis 1:24) and they came forth;
  • The Creator said, “Let us make man in our image.. (Genesis 1:26) and we were made in His image;
  • Jesus said to the waves, Quiet! Be still!” (Mark 4:39) and the wind died and the waves calmed;
  • Jesus called out in a loud voice to the dead, rotting body of Lazarus, “Come Out” (John 11:43) and Lazarus came out of his grave, alive;
  • Jesus said to the fig tree “Let no fruit grow on thee..”, and the fig tree “withered away.” (Matthew 21:19) ; and
  • He speaks the future into existence, e.g., “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.” (Isaiah 11:6). 

It is well known that our genetics affect our life span, and mitochondrial DNA is of particularly interest in that it regulates muscle tone and energy. Therefore, the divine genetic changes should be seen in our mitochondrial DNA, and they are. We, at Genesis and Genetics maintain that Neanderthal man is actually antediluvian (pre-flood) man (Ref 2).
We know that antediluvian man lived typically over 900 years (Genesis 5) and that modern man lives approximately of 70 years (Ref 3).


Neanderthal man is separated from modern man by typically 210 differences in the mitochondrial DNA. These differences, in our opinion, are evidence of the second genetic change/reset and resulting lifespan change. As more and more Neanderthal DNA sequences become available, scientists are finding that many of the Neanderthal genes are superior to ours. This is the subject of a forthcoming technical paper from Genesis and Genetics.

The Creator has used and continues to use voice commands to control His creation and this includes our DNA. He has changed our genetics at least twice so far, and promised at least one more.


Keywords: Ages in the Bible, Antediluvian man, Neanderthal in the Bible, DNA and Antediluvian man, God’s voice control, and Biblical lifespan.




2. Genesis and Genetics (2011). Neanderthal and His Biblical Identity,

3. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (29 July 2015).

The Genetics of Good Works

There appears to be a universal affinity to help others and do good works just as there is a universal affinity to sin; and, it appears that this nature to do good works is, at least somewhat, independent of religion.

Here is a scripture that supports the notion that we were created with the inherent tendency to do good works:

Ephesians 2:10
For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

If we continue to explore this concept, we realize that this affinity to do good works must be hardwired into man; and, if so, we cannot take credit for them. This principle is unique to, and ever present in, Christianity.

Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

Ephesians 2:9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

I appreciate this principle. It would be very unpleasant to be in paradise with someone boasting about how much he or she accomplished. It would be so much more pleasant to be with those who were saved by grace and had nothing to boast about, except the power and glory of Christ.

This is why the Bible teaches that faith, not good works, is the only way to please God; faith is independent of the hardwired nature of good works and the hardwired nature to sin. Here is a scripture that makes it clear:

Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him:

So, if we do good works, we should not boast – it is expected; we were created to do good works. If we perform great acts of benevolence, assume a high position in the church; conduct successful evangelical campaigns; or discover the cure for cancer, we have no reason to boast; this is what is expected of us.

One day a group of people presented themselves to Jesus; they wanted to do good works that were pleasing to God. They posed a very interesting question to Jesus:

John 6:28 Then they said to him, “What must we do, to be doing the works of God?” (ESV)


Jesus responded:


John 6:29 Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.” (ESV-words of Jesus in red)


This is the heart of Jesus’ teachings: it’s all about faith. Our work is to believe. Good works are in our nature, in our DNA, and we are ordained to do them; but, faith “in him whom he has sent” is the work that is pleasing to God.

Please also read our blog on The Genetics of Sin Nature .

Eve’s DNA

xxl_84904001-CreditThe account of Eve is an interesting and important segment of our genetic history. The Bible says that God put Adam into a deep sleep, took one of Adam’s ribs, and made a woman (Genesis 2:21-22). Adam named her Eve and proclaimed that she was “bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23-24).

So, how does modern science line up with this account? First of all, does the man’s rib contain enough genetic information to make a woman. The answer is “yes,” Adam’s ribs contained many copies of the genetic information required to make a woman. However, it is interesting to note that if the first human were a woman, her rib would not contain enough information to make a man. This is because women do not have the y-chromosome. So, if the Bible stated that the woman was created first and man was formed from her rib, the Bible would be in error; but, the Bible got it right and stands true. This all seems elementary to us now, but remember that the scriptures were given to us long before any discoveries of the workings of genetics and DNA.

It follows, from both a Biblical and genetic perspective, that Eve was Adam’s feminine identical twin. When Adam said that Eve was “bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23-24), he was confirming this point. Is this possible? Can there be male/female identical twins? Yes, it is possible: if a geneticist takes two identical twin embryos and genetically engineers them so one has two X chromosomes and the other has one X and one Y chromosomes, the resulting two humans will be identical male/female twins. Although rare, there are natural occurrences of male/female identical twins. For further information on this, just do an internet search on “male/female identical twins.”

A common question to this notion of Adam and Eve being identical male/female twins is: “If Adam and Eve were identical twins, wouldn’t all their children also be identical to Adam and/or Eve?” The answer to this question is “No.” Adam and Eve were identical twins and they each had two copies of every gene: one dominant and one recessive gene. Due to a biological process called “meiosis,” these genes were shuffled differently for each of their children, so the chances of a child having identical DNA to Adam and/or Eve is one out of a number too big to print on this page. This process of meiosis is easily understood, just search on “meiosis” and you will find many videos and detailed explanations.

In addition, it is the consensus of both creation and secular scientists that all humans presently on earth come from one woman: “Eve” (creationists) and “Mitochondrial Eve” (secular scientists).

Genesis 3:20  And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

In conclusion, Eve’s genetic heritage is a fascinating bit of our history that helps us understand our origins. It also demonstrates the convergence of modern science with Biblical truth.

Here are some related articles if interested.

Adam’s DNA

Adam’s Rib

Genesis Chapter 1 and 2


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Key words: Genesis and genetics, Eve’s DNA, Adam and Eve, marriage of identical twins, identical male female twins


The Gospel According to DNA

DNA is the code that defines our flesh and blood. It is complex to the extreme, and it contains the information that builds and maintains our bodies; our bodies are filled with little factories that assemble proteins; proofreaders that check instructions; little transporters that deliver building material to the factories and other users; there are gates with gate keepers; mechanisms that police the body looking for invaders; and more than 90,000 other mechanisms that build, regulate, and orchestrate body functions. All those who study DNA are amazed by it. So, from where did this marvelous DNA come and how did it develop into its present state?

Let’s go back in time approximately 6000 years ago, just before the creation. All things were in Christ, including our DNA. At this point all things (atoms, molecules, stars, animals, and humans) were just an idea, not yet formed or activated. Then, the idea of the creation was released in the form of Word, and on day 6 of the creation, the idea of man was spoken into existence (Genesis 1:26); at the end of day 6, God proclaimed the entire creation to be “very good” (Genesis 1:31), this included our DNA in its “very good” state. Then, after God rested on day seven (Genesis 2:2), Adam was formed (Genesis 2:7) and he received the breath of life from God, and Adam became a living soul, i.e. functioning flesh and blood. Fittingly, the name “Adam” means “mankind,” so, all of us alive today were in Adam. All of our genes were in him in the form DNA. It was God’s intention that Adam live forever; therefore, his DNA, and ours, was intended to be eternal.

However, once Adam was given life, humanity’s DNA became vulnerable, it was no longer safe in Christ, but subject to free will and the darkness (Genesis 1:4); God took a risk. Then, unfortunately, sin did enter the world through Adam (Romans 5:12). We, today, suffer from sin: our sins, our family’s sin, our nation’s sin, and Adam’s sin. Part of this suffering is the result of mutations in our DNA; these mutations, which were planted by Satan (Matthew 13:25), cause disease, deformities, death, and other deteriorations of our flesh and blood.

Our present DNA is corrupted and its destiny is death; but, the good news is that the original copy still exists, safely in Christ; and, all we have to do to be restored to our original day 6 DNA is to also be “in Christ” where we are safe and will live forever, even if we die. Here are some supporting scriptures to this notion:

1 Corinthians 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

1 Corinthians 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

1 Corinthians 15:54 So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. (KJV)

John 11:25
. . . I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: (Words of Jesus in red KJV)

This is just one reason, the genetic reason, why Jesus is called the redeemer: He retains every element of the creation in Him, including our DNA, and He has the power and authority to restore all things to their perfect condition at any time.

John 1:3 All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.

John 1:4 In him was life; . . .

In conclusion, our DNA as it exists now, was “in Christ” before the creation, spoken into existence on day 6. Then, after God’s rest, it was activated in the form of Adam; at this point human DNA was “very good.” Unfortunately, Adam sinned and his DNA became polluted, destined to death; and, since we all came from Adam, our DNA is also polluted. However, the good copy still exists in Christ where it is safe, and we have access to it when we are also “in Christ.” This is the Gospel from a DNA perspective.


Here are some other links with some additional background information:

Adam’s DNA

Genesis Chapter 1 and 2

Jesus’ DNA

The Genetics of Sin Nature


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Key words: Gospel genetics, eternal life DNA, Gospel according to DNA, In Christ, genetic mutations

The Genetics of Sin Nature

The Bible talks about our “sinful nature,” “the flesh,” and “carnal man” all of which refer to an attribute found in all humans: a propensity to sin. So the question is: Is this propensity to sin in our DNA? The answer is yes, sin nature is hardwired in us and in our DNA. We are not forced to sin, but we have the tendency to sin. This is not a God given tendency, but rather a result of Adam eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden some 6000 years ago.

ducklings_smallLet’s start with some basic logic: consider a baby duck, a duckling. It knows how to break out of the egg, how to walk on two legs, how to swim, how to eat by itself, and how to peep, all immediately after hatching. These are what are referred to as instincts; they are hardwired into the duckling through DNA and are not acquired through learning. We know this because all ducklings have these instincts no matter if hatched by the hen or hatched in an incubator. Later in life the duckling will learn where to find water, where he is safe, and where the best feeding spots are. So, the mature duck has some behavior that is hardwired and some that is learned.

The hardwired memory in the brain is passed on from generation to generation through DNA; the learned memory is not. We do not know which sequences of the DNA store these instincts since our understanding of DNA is still very limited. However, if you take a duck egg shortly after it is laid and crack it open, look at it and know that something in it contains the instructions to generate duck instincts. Logically, it has to be the DNA code which contains all the information to build a duck and prepare him for survival. Without these instincts being transfered throught the DNA from generation to generation, the duckling would not even hatch.

So how about humans? Human infants also have hardwired instincts such as desire to suckle, the tendency to put everything in their mouths, communication through crying, etc. Later, these infants learn the danger of falling, what pleases others, tasty foods, language, and many other things. So, like the duckling, the human infant is born with some hardwired memory and then later supplements this hardwired memory with learned memory. The hardwired  memory, or instincts, of humans includes the sin nature. This sin nature is apparent in all children and especially evident when they start to talk.

After God finished the creation, He proclaimed that the entire creation was “very good,” and this included man’s hardwired memory, or basic human instincts. Then came the serpent who injected something (the first GMO – genetically modified organism) into man using the forbidden fruit; this fruit changed man’s DNA, man now had the “sinful nature;” he was “carnal” and driven by his “flesh.” We know that it happened quickly because Adam and Eve, immediately after committing the original sin, hid from God; they were afraid of Him and ashamed of their nakedness (Genesis 3: 9-11). This fear and shame could not have been learned in that no events occurred that would have caused them to “learn” to fear God or be ashamed.

Our hardwired, instinctive sin nature is part of our DNA and we have to deal with it. Paul struggled with his sin nature and expressed his frustrations in the book of Romans:

Romans 7:19  For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing.

Romans 7:20  Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me.

Romans 7:21  So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. (ESV)

Once the sin nature is understood, it becomes evident why it is so important for parents to teach their children right from wrong. It is the “learned” portion of the brain that can combat the hardwired sin nature.

However, the only permanent solution for dealing with the sin nature is to get rid of it; and, we have the hope that someday, soon, our sin nature will be removed; and, it will; the trumpets will blow, the dead in Christ will meet us in the air and we will be changed: our sin nature will be gone; we will get our good, pure, original DNA and we will be free. We will be redeemed.

Jesus’ DNA

In a previous Blog, we discussed Adam’s DNA. In this Blog we will discuss the DNA of Jesus. You will see that we do know Jesus’ DNA and it has profound spiritual significance and clarifies many scriptures.

To begin with, we know that Mary was Jesus’ mother. And, we know that Jesus, the Son of God, was conceived by the Holy Spirit.

Matthew 1:20 But as he considered these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. (ESV)

We also know that Jesus was called the last Adam.

1 Corinthians 15:45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.

If we put these two scriptures together, I think we can be reasonably sure that Jesus had exactly the same DNA as Adam. It really had to be; just as Adam embodied all the genetic variations of humanity, Jesus had to do the same. He had to represent all of the genetic variation so that all of us would be represented in the “Body of Christ” and so that His death and resurrection would apply to all of humanity.

So, when the Holy Spirit conceived Jesus in Mary’s body, He took her DNA, and merged it with the perfect DNA that was created on day 6 of creation. This had to be done to eliminate all of the genetic mutations and to restore all of the possible genetic variations that were missing in Mary including the Y chromosome. In summary, the Holy Spirit conception was necessary for two reasons: one, so that Jesus would be the perfect unblemished sacrifice; and, two, so Jesus would represent and die for all humanity.

This is a very exciting concept. When Adam sinned, we all went down with him, but when Jesus was resurrected, we all were resurrected with Him; and, if we believe and accept this, we will all live with Him forever.

This principle clarifies many scriptures. Here are just a few:

1. The Image of God

Genesis 1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them

This scripture takes on new meaning. Jesus, being the last Adam had the same physical appearance as Adam. But, in truth, it isn’t that Jesus looked like Adam, but that Adam looked like Jesus. Adam was created in the image of God (Jesus).

Jesus actually shared his DNA with Adam. All the animals looked like their kind, but man looked like God (Jesus).

2. The Body of Christ

1 Corinthians 12:12 For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ.

The Body of Christ, the church, was created on day 6: All of the members: You, me, Adam, Eve, our children, our parents. We were all created for a purpose. We are all unique and individuals, but from the same body. The Body of Christ was created on day 6 and was perfect with no sin and no mutations.

3. And the Word Became Flesh

John 1:14 And the Word became flesh . . .

When you study DNA you see that it is a language. We are part of the Word of God, part of the Body of Christ.

4. With Him – part of Him

Romans 6:8 Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him.(ESV

We, being part of the Body of Christ, died with Him. When He was hanging on the cross, we were there. We were in the tomb with Him, in Hades with Him, and were raised up with Him. What He did, we did. When He is with the Father, we are with the Father.

John 17:23 I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me. (Words of Jesus – KJV)

Romans 12:5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another. (KJV)

Galatians 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

Ephesians 2:6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:

Dear friends and children, know that we are in Him and He is in us; and that we are truly part of the “body or Christ.” He is in us, in our DNA. And we are in Him, in His DNA. And now we know that the literal meaning is true scientifically. The Bible stands, pure.

Suggested Additional Reading:
The Gospel According to DNA
Adam’s DNA